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As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission November 8, 2022

Registration No. 333-

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM F-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Achilles Therapeutics plc

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

 

England and Wales   Not Applicable
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

245 Hammersmith Road

London W6 8PW

Tel. No.: +44 (0)20 8154 4600

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

Cogency Global Inc.

122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor

New York, New York 10168

Tel: (212) 947-7200

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Please send copies of all communications to:

Mitchell S. Bloom

Seo Salimi

Sophie C. McGrath

Goodwin Procter LLP

100 Northern Avenue

Boston, MA 02210

Tel. No.: (617) 570-1000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: from time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are to be offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestments plans, check the following box  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.C. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.C. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

Emerging growth company  ☒

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

† The term ‘‘new or revised financial accounting standard’’ refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY STATE WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED NOVEMBER 8, 2022

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

$200,000,000

Ordinary Shares

Ordinary Shares in the Form of American Depositary Shares

Warrants

Units

Debt Securities

and

5,543,454 Ordinary Shares in the Form of American Depositary Shares

Offered by the Selling Shareholder

 

 

This prospectus will allow us to offer and sell from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined at or prior to the time of one or more offerings, up to $200,000,000 of any combination, together or separately, of ordinary shares; ordinary shares in the form of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs; warrants; units; debt securities or any combination thereof as described in this prospectus. Any ADS will represent a specified number of ordinary shares. The warrants may be convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for ordinary shares or debt securities, the debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for ordinary shares or other debt securities. In addition, this prospectus relates to the resale, from time to time, of up to an aggregate of 5,543,454 shares of our ordinary shares in the form of ADSs by the selling shareholder named in this prospectus, including its donees, pledgees, transferees, assignees or other successors-in-interest. We will not receive any proceeds from sales of the shares offered by the selling shareholder although we will incur expenses in connection with such offering.

This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide you with the specific terms of any offering in one or more supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should carefully read this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated in any of the foregoing by reference, before you invest in our securities. This prospectus may not be used to sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Our ordinary shares in the form of ADSs are traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “ACHL.”

We may offer and sell our securities in one offering or in separate offerings, to or through one or more agents, underwriters, dealers or other third parties or directly to one or more purchasers on a continuous or delayed basis. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell our securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of our securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from the sale of such securities will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES A HIGH DEGREE OF RISK. YOU SHOULD REVIEW CAREFULLY THE RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES REFERENCED UNDER THE HEADING “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AS WELL AS THOSE CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND ANY RELATED FREE WRITING PROSPECTUS, AND IN THE OTHER DOCUMENTS THAT ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS OR THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

We are an ‘‘emerging growth company’’ as that term is used in the U.S. Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and future filings.

Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Prospectus dated             , 2022


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     ii  

SUMMARY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

     27  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     35  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     41  

SELLING SHAREHOLDER

     42  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     44  

TAXATION

     47  

ENFORCEABILITY OF CERTAIN CIVIL LIABILITIES

     48  

LEGAL MATTERS

     50  

EXPERTS

     50  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     51  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     52  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, offer and sell separately or together in any combination the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate offering price of up to $200,000,000. In addition, under this shelf registration process, the selling shareholder named in this prospectus may offer or sell shares of our ordinary shares in one or more offerings from time to time.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we, or the selling shareholder, sells securities, we or the selling shareholder will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. Neither we, nor the selling shareholder, have authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in any accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, all references in this prospectus to the terms “Achilles,” “the company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to: (i) Achilles Therapeutics UK Limited (and, where the context requires, its subsidiaries) prior to the completion of our corporate reorganization; (ii) Achilles TX Limited (and, where the context requires, its subsidiaries) following the completion of our corporate reorganization, but prior to the re-registration of Achilles TX Limited as a public limited company and the change of its name to Achilles Therapeutics plc; and (iii) Achilles Therapeutics plc (and, where the context requires, its subsidiaries) following the corporate reorganization and subsequent re-registration of Achilles TX Limited as a public limited company and the change of its name to Achilles Therapeutics plc.

We own various trademark registrations and applications, and unregistered trademarks, including ACHILLES, PELEUS, VELOS and our corporate logo. All other trade names, trademarks and service marks referred to in this Annual Report, are the property of their respective owners. Trade names, trademarks and service marks of other companies appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus may be referred to without the ® and symbols, but such references should not be construed as an indicator that their respective owners will not assert their rights thereto to the fullest extent under applicable law. We do not intend to use or display other companies’ trademarks or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

Our audited consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or U.S. GAAP, as issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB. Our consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. Dollars. All references in this prospectus to “$” are to U.S. dollars and all references to “£” are to pounds sterling.

 

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SUMMARY

About the Company

We are a clinical stage immuno-oncology biopharmaceutical company developing transformative precision T cell therapies to treat multiple types of solid tumors. We are focused on advancing cancer therapies through our pioneering work in the field of tumor evolution and our belief that clonal neoantigens represent the most specific class of cancer cell targets. Our platform enables us to identify mutations formed early in the development of a cancer that give rise to antigens that are expressed by all of a patient’s cancer cells but are absent from healthy tissue. We refer to this novel class of solid tumor targets as clonal neoantigens. To identify clonal neoantigens in a patient we have developed a proprietary bioinformatic platform called PELEUS. This platform employs sophisticated statistical algorithms trained on the unique tumor genetic data derived from our exclusive license to data from the TRACERx study, which aims to analyze tumor samples from more than 840 non-small cell lung cancer, or NSCLC, patients. Once we have identified the clonal neoantigens, our proprietary manufacturing process, VELOS, uses the patient’s T cells and blood-derived dendritic cells to create a clonal neoantigen-reactive T cell, or cNeT, therapy that specifically targets multiple clonal neoantigens to eradicate the tumor or tumors. We are currently conducting two open-label Phase I/IIa trials to evaluate our cNeT product candidate, ATL001, in advanced NSCLC and metastatic or recurrent melanoma and expect to report additional patient data from these trials in the second half of 2022. We are also using our Material Acquisition Platform, or MAP, network, which consists of a network of participating medical facilities, to collect tissue samples from other tumor types, such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, or HNSCC, renal cell carcinoma, or RCC, triple negative breast cancer, or TNBC, and bladder cancer, to develop our PELEUS platform to identify clonal neoantigens in these tumor types.

Our Pipeline

We believe our cNeT is uniquely positioned to overcome the challenges faced by existing immunotherapies for the treatment of solid tumors. We have worldwide rights to our cNeT programs and are currently developing them for the treatment of the following solid tumor indications:

 

LOGO

Depending on the results of our Phase I/II trials, we plan to engage with the appropriate regulatory authorities to discuss potential pathways to registration.

 

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We are currently conducting a Phase I/IIa, open-label, proof-of-concept trial in each of advanced NSCLC, referred to as CHIRON, and metastatic or recurrent melanoma, referred to as THETIS. We have prioritized the tumor types that we are seeking to address based on criteria we believe will maximize the potential of our programs to demonstrate a clinical benefit, including clonal neoantigen burden, TIL infiltration, tumor accessibility, as well as commercial factors such as high unmet medical need. Our Phase I/IIa trials are evaluating safety and tolerability of cNeT and assessing clinical efficacy based primarily on the change from baseline in tumor size, response rate and duration of response. Data from the first eight patients were presented in November 2021 and we expect to generate additional patient data in the fourth quarter of 2022.

We believe the principles of tumor evolution to be common across many tumor types enabling our cNeT approach to be broadly applicable. As such, we have built up our MAP network to acquire and analyze tumor samples from multiple different indications to facilitate the development of follow-on indications for our cNeT, such as HNSCC, RCC, TNBC and bladder cancer. Our investigational new drug application, or IND, for HNSCC was accepted by the FDA in January 2022 for VELOS Process 1 manufacturing and we expect to make additional submissions for our other earlier stage programs in the future.

Our Team

Our management team has a strong track record of delivery including expertise in cancer immunology, oncology drug development, cell therapy process development, manufacturing and supply chain management. We are led by Dr. Iraj Ali, our Chief Executive Officer. Dr. Ali was formerly a Managing Partner of Syncona, where he served as an Investment Director at Nightstar Therapeutics (acquired by Biogen) and Blue Earth Diagnostics (acquired by Bracco Imaging), and was previously an Associate-Principal at McKinsey & Co. Our Chief Scientific Officer and co-founder is Professor Sergio Quezada, who is a recognized leader in the field of immune regulation and cancer immunology and was a founder of TUSK Therapeutics, an immuno-oncology company acquired by Roche. Our Chief Medical Officer and co-founder is Professor Karl Peggs, who was formerly a Professor of Transplant Science and Cancer Immunotherapy at University College London. Professor Peggs has significant experience in the clinical translation of T cell therapies and is the Director of the Cellular Immunotherapy Unit at University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, or UCLH. Our Scientific Advisory Board also includes our other scientific founders, Professors Charles Swanton and Mark Lowdell, who are leaders in the respective fields of tumor evolution and cell manufacturing.

Corporate Information

Achilles Therapeutics Limited was incorporated under the laws of England and Wales in May 2016, under the name AchillesTX Limited and, until the completion of our corporate reorganization, was the holding company for Achilles Therapeutics US, Inc. In October 2016, AchillesTX Limited changed its name to Achilles Therapeutics Limited.

In January 2021, Achilles Therapeutics Limited changed its name to Achilles Therapeutics UK Limited. Achilles Therapeutics plc was incorporated under the laws of England and Wales in November 2020 as the holding company for Achilles Therapeutics Holdings Limited, under the name Achilles TX Limited. In November 2020, following the incorporation of Achilles TX Limited, Achilles Therapeutics Holdings Limited was incorporated under the laws of England and Wales as a wholly owned subsidiary of Achilles Therapeutics plc, to become a holding company for Achilles Therapeutics UK Limited and Achilles Therapeutics US, Inc. following completion of a corporate reorganization. Our registered office is located at 245 Hammersmith Road, London, W6 8PW, United Kingdom, and our telephone number is +44 (0)20 8154 4600. Our website address is www.achillestx.com. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc.

 

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Corporate Reorganization

Pursuant to the terms of a corporate reorganization effected in December 2020, all shareholders of Achilles Therapeutics UK Limited exchanged each of the shares held by them for equivalent shares (both in terms of number and class but with a nominal value per share of £1.20) in Achilles TX Limited and, as a result, Achilles Therapeutics UK Limited became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Achilles TX Limited. In February 2021, Achilles TX Limited was re-registered as a public limited company and was renamed as Achilles Therapeutics plc. Following this, Achilles Therapeutics plc sold the entire issued share capital of Achilles Therapeutics UK Limited to Achilles Therapeutics Holdings Limited for two newly issued ordinary shares of £1.00 each in the capital of Achilles Therapeutics Holdings Limited. As a result, Achilles Therapeutics UK Limited became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Achilles Therapeutics Holdings Limited and Achilles Therapeutics US, Inc. became an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Achilles Therapeutics Holdings Limited. Following completion of this transfer, Achilles Therapeutics UK Limited distributed the entire issued share capital of Achilles Therapeutics US, Inc. to Achilles Therapeutics Holdings Limited. Immediately prior to completion of our initial public offering, we reorganized our share capital into two classes of ordinary shares: ordinary shares and Class A ordinary shares, each with a nominal value of £0.001.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

As a company with less than $1.235 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:

 

   

the ability to present only two years of audited financial statements, in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” disclosure;

 

   

exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act; and

 

   

an exemption from new or revised financial accounting standards until they would apply to private companies and from compliance with any new requirements adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board requiring mandatory audit firm rotation.

Generally, we may take advantage of these exemptions for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earliest of: (i) the last day of our fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of at least $1.235 billion; (ii) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the Exchange Act which would occur if the market value of our ordinary shares (including in the form of ADSs) held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter; or (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three year period, issued more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt.

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to avail ourselves of this extended transition period and, as a result, we may adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-public companies instead of the dates required for other public companies.

We have taken advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements in this prospectus. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold equity securities.

 

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Implications of Being a Foreign Private Issuer

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act. Our status as a foreign private issuer also exempts us from compliance with certain laws and regulations of the SEC and certain regulations of The Nasdaq Stock Market. Consequently, even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we will not be subject to all of the disclosure requirements applicable to public companies organized within the United States. For example, we are exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act that regulate disclosure obligations and procedural requirements related to the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations applicable to a security registered under the Exchange Act. In addition, our executive officers and directors are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and related rules with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities. Moreover, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. public companies. Accordingly, there may be less publicly available information concerning our company than there is for U.S. public companies. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from the Regulation Fair Disclosure, aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information.

Both foreign private issuers and emerging growth companies are exempt from certain more stringent executive compensation disclosure rules. Thus, even if we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, if we remain a foreign private issuer, we will continue to be exempt from the more stringent compensation disclosures required of companies that are neither an emerging growth company nor a foreign private issuer.

We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time as we no longer qualify as a foreign private issuer. We are required to determine our status as a foreign private issuer on an annual basis at the end of our second fiscal quarter. We will remain a foreign private issuer until such time that 50% or more of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies: (i) the majority of the members of board of directors or our executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents; (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States.

We have taken advantage of certain of these reduced reporting and other requirements in this prospectus. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different from the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold equity securities.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the materialization of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including: (i) the Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on March 1, 2022, which is incorporated herein by reference; and (ii) other documents we file with the SEC that are deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain express or implied forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Any statements contained or incorporated by reference herein that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the words “may,” “might,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “objective,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “ongoing,” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements and opinions contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein are based upon information available to our management as of the date of this prospectus and, while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, and we are responsible for the accuracy of such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the success, cost and timing of our research activities and clinical trials;

 

   

the timing, scope or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including timing of IND and Biologics License Application filings for our current and future programs and any future product candidates, and final U.S. Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency or other foreign regulatory authority approval of our current programs or follow-on indications and any future product candidates;

 

   

our ability to develop and advance additional follow-on indications as well as any future product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical studies;

 

   

our ability to continue to innovate, improve and develop our technology platform, including continuing to develop and improve our PELEUS bioinformatic platform and VELOS manufacturing process and to evaluate new approaches to our manufacturing process;

 

   

our ability to expand our MAP network to increase our network of clinical sites;

 

   

our ability to establish future collaborations or strategic relationships or obtain additional funding;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our current and future programs and any future product candidates we may develop;

 

   

our intellectual property position, including the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering product candidates we may develop, including the validity of intellectual property rights held by third parties, and our ability not to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any third-party intellectual property rights;

 

   

regulatory developments in the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union and other countries and regions;

 

   

competitive companies, technologies and our industry and the success of competing therapies that are or may become available;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain key scientific or management personnel;

 

   

our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to complete further development and commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;

 

   

the accuracy of our estimates of our future revenue, expenses, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

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our estimates regarding the market opportunities for our current and future programs and any future product candidates;

 

   

whether we are classified as a controlled foreign corporation and/or a passive foreign investment company for future periods;

 

   

our ability to overcome the challenges posed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic to the conduct of our business; and

 

   

our expectations regarding use of the proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus.

You should refer to the section titled “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 20-F, this prospectus, and our other reports filed with the SEC for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to this registration statement of which this prospectus is a part completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you in connection with a specific offering, we intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus to fund activities relating to the continued development of our product candidates and cell therapy platform and for other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, capital expenditures, investments, acquisitions, should we choose to pursue any, and collaborations. We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on any of the areas listed above or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive in connection with securities offered pursuant to this prospectus for any purpose. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we may initially invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including short-term interest-bearing securities and investment-grade instruments.

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our ordinary shares owned by the selling shareholder. We will bear all expenses incurred in connection with the performance of our obligations under the Registration Rights Agreement, as defined below, and will reimburse the selling shareholder for the reasonable fees and disbursements of one firm or counsel to act as counsel for the selling shareholder in connection with the offering made by the selling shareholder.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

The following describes our issued share capital, summarizes the material provisions of our articles of association and highlights certain differences in corporate law in England and Delaware. The following summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, the applicable provisions of English law and our articles of association, a copy of which is incorporated by reference from Exhibit 1.1 to our Annual Report on Form 20-F, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Issued share capital

As of September 30, 2022, the issued share capital of Achilles Therapeutics plc comprised of 39,322,396 ordinary shares, 1,616,367 Class A non-voting ordinary shares and one deferred share.

Ordinary shares

Our ordinary shares have the rights and restrictions described in “—Key provisions of our articles of association” below. In accordance with our articles of association, the following summarizes the rights of holders of our ordinary shares:

 

   

each holder of our ordinary shares is entitled to one vote per ordinary share on all matters to be voted on by shareholders generally;

 

   

the holders of our ordinary shares shall be entitled to receive notice of, attend, speak and vote at our general meetings and receive a copy of every report, accounts, circular or other documents sent out by us to our shareholders; and

 

   

holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to receive such dividends as are recommended by our directors and declared by our shareholders.

Class A ordinary shares

Our Class A ordinary shares have the rights and restrictions described in “—Key provisions of our articles of association” below. In accordance with our articles of association, the following summarizes the rights of holders of our Class A ordinary shares:

 

   

the Class A ordinary shares are identical to our ordinary shares in all respects, except that the holders of our Class A ordinary shares will not be entitled to vote on shareholder matters; and

 

   

holders of our Class A ordinary shares will have the right to convert each such Class A ordinary share into one ordinary share at the holder’s election, unless, as a result of such conversion, the holder and its affiliates would own more than 9.99% of the combined voting power of our outstanding share capital, and subject to certain additional restrictions as more particularly described in our articles of association. A Class A ordinary share, once converted to an ordinary share, may not be converted back into a Class A ordinary share.

Deferred shares

Our deferred share, created as part of our reverse share split, has the rights and restrictions set out in our articles of association. In summary:

 

   

holders of our deferred shares are not entitled to vote on shareholder matters, or receive notice of, attend, speak or vote at our general meetings or receive copies of our reports, accounts, circulars or other documents sent to our shareholders;

 

   

holders of our deferred shares shall not be entitled to receive any dividends or participate in our profits;

 

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in the event of a winding up or our liquidation, the deferred shares shall only participate in our surplus assets to the extent that each ordinary share and Class A ordinary share has first received the amount paid up on that share plus the sum of £1,000,000 in respect of each ordinary share and Class A ordinary share; and

 

   

the deferred shares shall not be transferable, save as in accordance with the limited circumstances set out in our articles of association.

Shareholder register

We are required by the Companies Act 2006 to keep a register of our shareholders. Under English law, the ordinary shares and Class A ordinary shares are deemed to be issued when the name of the shareholder is entered in our share register. The share register therefore is prima facie evidence of the identity of our shareholders, and the shares that they hold. The share register generally provides limited, or no, information regarding the ultimate beneficial owners of our ordinary shares and Class A ordinary shares. Our share register is maintained by our registrar, Computershare Investor Services plc. Our share register will also show the details of the holder(s) of our deferred shares.

Holders of the ADSs are not treated as our shareholders and their names are therefore not entered in our share register. The depositary, the custodian or their nominee is the holder of the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs. Holders of the ADSs have a right to receive the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs. For discussion on the ADSs and ADS holder rights, see “Description of American depositary shares” in this prospectus.

Under the Companies Act 2006, we must enter an allotment of shares in our share register as soon as practicable and in any event within two months of the allotment. We are also required by the Companies Act 2006 to register a transfer of shares (or give the transferee notice of and reasons for refusal as the transferee may reasonably request) as soon as practicable and in any event within two months of receiving notice of the transfer.

We, any of our shareholders or any other affected person may apply to the court for rectification of the share register if:

 

   

the name of any person, without sufficient cause, is wrongly entered in or omitted from our share register; or

 

   

there is a default or unnecessary delay in entering on the register the fact of any person having ceased to be a member.

Registration rights

Certain holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of such securities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. These rights are provided under the terms of a registration rights agreement between us and holders of our shares, or the registration rights agreement. The registration rights agreement includes demand registration rights, short-form registration rights and piggyback registration rights.

Demand registration rights

Certain holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to demand registration rights. Under the terms of the registration rights agreement, we will be required, upon the written request of holders of a majority of these securities to file a registration statement and use best efforts to effect the registration of all or a portion of these shares for public resale. We are required to effect only two registrations pursuant to this provision of the registration rights agreement.

 

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Short-form registration rights

Pursuant to the registration rights agreement, if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form F-3 or Form S-3, upon the written request of holders of these securities at an aggregate offer price of at least $10.0 million, we will be required to effect a registration of such shares. We are required to effect only two registrations in any twelve month period pursuant to this provision of the registration rights agreement. The right to have such shares registered on Form F-3 or Form S-3 is further subject to other specified conditions and limitations.

Piggyback registration rights

Pursuant to the registration rights agreement, if we register any of our securities either for our own account or for the account of other shareholders, other than in connection with our initial public offering or a registration for any employee benefit plan, corporate reorganization, or the offer or sale of debt securities, the holders of these shares are entitled to include their shares in the registration.

Indemnification

Our registration rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we are obligated to indemnify holders of registrable securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.

Expiration of registration rights

The registration rights granted under the registration rights agreement will terminate in the event of a share sale, as defined in our articles of association.

Key provisions of our articles of association

A summary of certain key provisions of our articles of association is set out below. The summary below is not a complete copy of the terms of our articles of association. For further information, please refer to the full version of our articles of association filed as Exhibit 1.1 to our annual report on Form 20-F which is incorporated herein by reference.

Our articles of association contain no specific restrictions on our purpose and therefore, by virtue of section 31(1) of the Companies Act 2006, our purpose is unrestricted.

Our articles of association contain, among other things, provisions to the following effect:

Share capital

Our share capital consists of ordinary shares, Class A ordinary shares and deferred shares. We may, in accordance with section 551 of the Companies Act 2006, be authorized by our shareholders to generally and unconditionally allot our shares or grant rights to subscribe for or convert any security into our shares by way of an ordinary resolution. We may issue these shares with such rights and restrictions as may be determined by the ordinary resolution, or if no ordinary resolution is passed or so far as the resolution does not make specific provision, as our board of directors may determine, including shares which are to be redeemed, or are liable to be redeemed at our option or the option of the holder of such shares. However, an amendment to our articles of association, which requires the passing of a special resolution, will be required to issue any shares other than ordinary shares, Class A ordinary shares or deferred shares.

 

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Voting

The holders of our ordinary shares have the right to receive notice of, and to attend and vote at, our general meetings. Subject to any other provisions of our articles of association and without prejudice to any special rights, privileges or restrictions as to voting attached to any shares forming part of our share capital, each holder of our ordinary shares who is present in person (or, in the case of a corporation, by representative) or by proxy at a general meeting will vote on a poll, and as a result will have one vote in respect of every share held by him or her.

For the avoidance of doubt, the holders of our Class A ordinary shares will not have the right to vote on our shareholder matters.

Variation of rights

Whenever our share capital is divided into different classes of shares, and save as where explicitly provided for in our articles of association, the special rights attached to any class may be varied or abrogated either: (i) with the consent in writing of the holders of not less than three-quarters in nominal value of the issued shares of that class (excluding any shares of that class held as treasury shares); or (ii) with the authority of a special resolution passed at a general meeting of the holders of the shares of that class, and may be so varied and abrogated while we are a going concern.

Dividends

We may, subject to the provisions of the Companies Act 2006 and our articles of association, by ordinary resolution from time to time declare dividends to be paid to shareholders according to their respective rights and interests in our profits, however no dividend shall exceed the amount recommended by our board of directors.

Subject to the provisions of the Companies Act 2006, our board of directors may declare interim dividends (including any dividend at a fixed rate) as appears to our board of directors to be justified by our profits available for distribution. Except as provided otherwise by the rights attached to shares, all dividends may be declared or paid in any currency. Our board of directors may decide the rate of exchange for any currency conversions that may be required and how any costs involved in such conversions are to be met.

All dividends that remain unclaimed after a period of twelve years from the date after they were first declared or became due for payment shall, if our board of directors so resolves, be forfeited and shall cease to remain owing by us.

Unless otherwise provided by the rights attached to the share, no dividend or other monies payable by us or in respect of a share shall bear interest as against us.

Liquidation

On a distribution of assets on a liquidation, dissolution or winding-up:

 

   

the surplus assets remaining after payment of our liabilities shall be distributed among the holders of our ordinary shares and Class A ordinary shares in proportion to the number of our ordinary shares and/or Class A ordinary shares held, irrespective of the amount paid or credited as paid on any share; and

 

   

the deferred shares shall only participate in our surplus assets to the extent that each ordinary share and Class A ordinary share has first received the amount paid up on that ordinary shares plus the sum of £1,000,000 in respect of each ordinary share and Class A ordinary share.

 

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Transfer of ordinary shares and Class A ordinary shares

Subject to the restrictions set out in our articles of association, each shareholder may transfer all or any of his shares which are in certificated form by means of an instrument of transfer in any usual form or in any other form which our board of directors may approve. Each shareholder may transfer all or any of their shares which are in uncertificated form by means of a “relevant system” (i.e., the CREST System) in such manner provided for, and subject as provided in, the uncertificated securities rules (as defined in our articles of association) (i.e., the CREST Regulations).

Our board of directors may, in its absolute discretion, refuse to register a transfer of shares in certificated form unless:

 

(i)

it is for a share which is fully paid up;

 

(ii)

it is for a share upon which we have no lien;

 

(iii)

it is only for one class of share;

 

(iv)

it is in favor of a single transferee or no more than four joint transferees;

 

(v)

it is duly stamped or is duly certificated or otherwise shown to the satisfaction of our board of directors to be exempt from stamp duty; and

 

(vi)

it is delivered for registration to our registered office (or such other place as our board of directors may determine), accompanied (except in the case of a transfer by a person to whom we are not required by law to issue a certificate and to whom a certificate has not been issued or in the case of a renunciation) by the certificate for the shares to which it relates and such other evidence as our board of directors may reasonably require to prove the title of the transferor (or person renouncing) and the due execution of the transfer or renunciation by such transferor or, if the transfer or renunciation is executed by some other person on his behalf, the authority of that person to do so.

Our board of directors shall not refuse to register any transfer of partly paid shares in respect of which ADSs are admitted to Nasdaq on the grounds that they are partly paid shares in circumstances where such refusal would prevent dealings in such shares from taking place on an open and proper basis.

Our board of directors may refuse to register a transfer of uncertificated shares in any circumstances that are allowed or required by the uncertificated securities rules and the relevant system (in each case as defined in our articles of association) (i.e., the CREST Regulations and the CREST System).

Allotment of shares and preemption rights

Subject to the Companies Act 2006 and to any rights attached to existing shares, any share may be issued with or have attached to it such rights and restrictions as we may by ordinary resolution determine, or if no ordinary resolution has been passed or so far as the resolution does not make specific provision, as our board of directors may determine (including shares which are to be redeemed, or are liable to be redeemed at our option or the holder of such shares). However, an amendment to our articles of association, which requires the passing of a special resolution, will be required to issue any shares other than ordinary shares, Class A ordinary shares or deferred shares.

In accordance with section 551 of the Companies Act 2006, our board of directors may be generally and unconditionally authorized to exercise all of our powers to allot shares or grant rights to subscribe for or to convert any security into shares up to an aggregate nominal amount equal to the amount stated in the relevant ordinary resolution authorizing such allotment. The authorities referred to above were included in the ordinary resolution of our shareholders passed on March 15, 2021 and remain in force at the date of this prospectus.

 

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Pursuant to section 561 of the Companies Act 2006, shareholders are granted preemptive rights when new shares are issued for cash. However, it is possible for our articles of association, or shareholders at a general meeting representing at least 75% of our ordinary shares present (in person or by proxy) and eligible to vote at that general meeting, to disapply these preemptive rights. Such a disapplication of preemption rights may be for a maximum period of up to five years from the date of the shareholder resolution. In either case, this disapplication would need to be renewed by our shareholders upon its expiration (i.e., at least every five years).

On March 15, 2021, our shareholders approved the disapplication of preemptive rights for a period of five years from the date of approval by way of a special resolution of our shareholders. This included the disapplication of preemption rights in relation to the allotment of our ordinary shares in connection with this offering. This disapplication will need to be renewed upon expiration (i.e., at least every five years) to remain effective, but may be sought more frequently for additional five-year terms (or any shorter period).

Alteration of share capital

We may, in accordance with the Companies Act 2006, by ordinary resolution consolidate all or any of our share capital into a smaller number of shares of a larger nominal amount than our existing shares, or cancel any shares which, at the date of that ordinary resolution, have not been taken or agreed to be taken by any person and diminish the amount of our share capital by the amount of shares so cancelled, or sub-divide our shares, or any of them, into shares of a smaller nominal amount than our existing shares.

We may, in accordance with the Companies Act 2006, reduce or cancel our share capital or any capital redemption reserve or share premium account in any manner and with and subject to any conditions, authorities and consents required by law.

Board of directors

Appointment of directors

Unless otherwise determined by ordinary resolution, the number of directors (other than any alternate directors) shall not be less than two and not more than fifteen.

Subject to our articles of association and the Companies Act 2006, we may by ordinary resolution appoint a person who is willing to act as a director and our board of directors shall have power at any time to appoint any person who is willing to act as a director, in both cases either to fill a vacancy or as an addition to the existing board of directors.

Our articles of association provide that our board of directors will consist of one class of directors constituting our entire board of directors. At each annual general meeting, the successors of directors will be elected to serve from the time of election and qualification until the subsequent annual meeting following election. Directors retiring at an annual general meeting shall be eligible for re-appointment by ordinary resolution at such annual general meeting.

At every subsequent annual general meeting any director who has been appointed by our board of directors since the last annual general meeting must retire from office and may offer themselves for reappointment by the shareholders by ordinary resolution.

Proceedings of directors

Subject to the provisions of our articles of association, our board of directors may regulate their proceedings as they deem appropriate. A director may, and the secretary at the request of a director shall, call a meeting of the directors.

 

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The quorum for a meeting of our board of directors shall be fixed from time to time by decision of the board of directors, but it must never be fewer than two directors (or duly appointed alternative directors).

Questions and matters requiring resolution arising at a meeting shall be decided by a majority of votes of the participating directors, with each director having one vote. In the case of an equality of votes, the chairperson of the board will have a second or casting vote (unless the chairperson is not entitled to vote on the resolution in question).

Directors’ compensation

Directors shall be entitled to receive such fees as our board of directors shall determine for their services and for any other service which they undertake on our behalf provided that the aggregate fees payable to the directors must not exceed $500,000 per annum or such higher amount as may from time to time be decided by ordinary resolution. Directors shall be entitled to reasonable additional remuneration (whether by way of salary, commission, participation in profits or otherwise) for any special duties or services performed or rendered to us, as determined by our board of directors, and in respect of any employment or executive office. The directors shall also be entitled to be paid reasonable travel, hotel and other expenses properly incurred by them in connection with their attendance at meetings of shareholders or class meetings, board of director or committee meetings or otherwise in connection with the performance of their duties as directors.

Conflicts of interest

Our board of directors may, in accordance with the requirements in our articles of association, authorize any matter proposed to them by any director which would, if not authorized, involve a director breaching their duty under the Companies Act 2006, to avoid conflicts of interests.

A director seeking authorization in respect of such conflict shall declare to our board of directors the nature and extent of their interest in a conflict as soon as is reasonably practicable. The director shall provide our board of directors with such details of the matter as are necessary for our board of directors to decide how to address the conflict together with such additional information as may be requested by our board of directors.

Any authorization by our board of directors will be effective only if:

 

(i)

to the extent permitted by the Companies Act 2006, the matter in question shall have been proposed by any director for consideration in the same way that any other matter may be proposed to the directors under the provisions of our articles of association;

 

(ii)

any requirement as to the quorum for consideration of the relevant matter is met without counting the conflicted director and any other conflicted director; and

 

(iii)

the matter is agreed to without the conflicted director voting or would be agreed to if the conflicted director’s and any other interested director’s vote is not counted.

Permitted interests

Under our articles of association, certain transactions which would otherwise give rise to a conflict are considered to be permitted interests of our directors. In the event that these permitted interests arise, the director in question will still count towards the quorum requirements of the relevant meeting and be entitled to vote on resolutions relating to such permitted interests, including but not limited to the following matters:

 

(i)

the giving by such director of any security, guarantee or indemnity for any money or any liability which such director, or any other person, has lent or obligations such director or any other person has undertaken at the request, or for the benefit, of us or any of our subsidiary undertakings;

 

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(ii)

the giving of any security, guarantee or indemnity to any other person for a debt or obligation which is owed by us or any of our subsidiary undertakings, to that other person if such director has taken responsibility for some or all of that debt or obligation. Such director can take this responsibility by giving a guarantee, indemnity or security;

 

(iii)

a proposal or contract relating to an offer of any shares or debentures or other securities for subscription or purchase by us or any of our subsidiary undertakings, if such director takes part because such director is a holder of shares, debentures or other securities, or if such director takes part in the underwriting or sub-underwriting of the offer;

 

(iv)

any arrangement for the benefit of our employees or the employees of any of our subsidiary undertakings which only gives such director benefits which are also generally given to employees to whom the arrangement relates;

 

(v)

any arrangement involving any other company if such director (together with any person connected with such director) has an interest of any kind in that company (including an interest by holding any position in that company or by being a shareholder of that company). This does not apply if such director knows that that such director has a relevant interest in a company. A company shall be deemed to be one in which such director has a relevant interest if and so long as (but only if and so long as) such director is to their knowledge (either directly or indirectly) the holder of or beneficially interested in one percent or more of any class of the equity share capital of that company (calculated exclusive of any shares of that class in that company held as treasury shares) or of the voting rights available to shareholders of that company;

 

(vi)

a contract relating to insurance which we can buy or renew for the benefit of our directors or a group of people which includes our directors; and

 

(vii)

a contract relating to a pension, superannuation or similar scheme or a retirement, death, disability benefits scheme or employees’ share scheme which gives such director benefits which are also generally given to the employees to whom the scheme relates.

A director is not permitted to vote (or count towards the quorum) on a resolution relating to their own appointment or the settlement or variation of the terms of their appointment to an office or place of profit with us, or any other company in which we have an interest.

Directors’ indemnity

Subject to the provisions of the Companies Act 2006, all of our directors, secretaries or other officers (other than an auditor) shall be indemnified against all any loss or liability incurred by them or in connection with their duties or powers in relation to us or any of our subsidiaries or any pension fund or employee’s shares scheme of us or any of our subsidiaries or in relation to our activities as trustee of any occupational pension scheme which is operated by us from time to time. This indemnity includes any liability incurred by a director in defending any civil or criminal proceedings in which judgment is given in that director’s favor or the director is acquitted or the proceedings are otherwise disposed of without any finding or admission of any material breach of duty on their part and we may provide the director with funds to meet expenditure incurred in connection with the proceedings set out above.

General meetings

In accordance with the Companies Act 2006, we must convene and hold annual general meetings within the six-month period beginning with the day following our accounting reference date. Under the Companies Act 2006, an annual general meeting must be called by notice of at least 21 clear days and a general meeting must be called by notice of at least 14 clear days.

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meeting which shall not be treated as part of the business of the meeting. Save as otherwise provided by our articles of association, shareholders holding thirty-three and one-third percent (33 1/3%) of our issued shares (excluding any shares held as treasury shares) present in person or by proxy (or in the case of a corporation, by a representative) and entitled to vote shall be a quorum for all purposes.

Choice of forum/governing law

Our articles of association provide that the courts of England and Wales will be the exclusive forum for resolving all shareholder complaints other than shareholder complaints asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, for which, unless we consent by ordinary resolution to the selection of an alternative forum, the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York will be the exclusive forum. As a company incorporated in England and Wales, the choice of the courts of England and Wales as our exclusive forum for resolving all shareholder complaints, other than complaints arising under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, allows us to more efficiently and affordably respond to such actions, and provides consistency in the application of the laws of England and Wales to such actions. Similarly, we have selected the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York as our exclusive forum for resolving shareholder complaints arising under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act in order to more efficiently and affordably respond to such claims. This choice of forum also provides both us and our shareholders with a forum that is familiar with and regularly reviews cases involving U.S. securities law. Although we believe this choice of forum benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of U.S. securities law for the specified types of action, it may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers by, among other things, increasing the costs of shareholder suits. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in our ordinary shares will be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of our articles of association, including the exclusive forum provision. However, it is possible that a court could find our forum selection provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable. The enforceability of similar exclusive forum provisions (including exclusive federal forum provisions for actions, suits or proceedings asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act) in other companies’ organizational documents has been challenged in legal proceedings, and there is uncertainty as to whether courts would enforce the exclusive forum provisions in our articles of association. Additionally, our shareholders cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.

Borrowing powers

Subject to our articles of association and the Companies Act 2006, our board of directors may exercise all of our powers to:

 

(a)

borrow money;

 

(b)

indemnify and guarantee;

 

(c)

mortgage or charge;

 

(d)

create and issue debentures and other securities; and

 

(e)

give security either outright or as collateral security for any of our debts, liabilities or obligations or any debt, liability or obligation of a third party.

Capitalization of profits

The directors may, if they are so authorized by an ordinary resolution of the shareholders, decide to capitalize any of our undivided profits not required for paying any preferential dividend (whether or not they are available for distribution), or any sum standing to the credit of any reserve or fund which is available for distribution or standing to the credit of our share premium account, capital redemption reserve or other undistributable reserve. The directors may also, subject to the aforementioned ordinary resolution, appropriate any sum which they so decide to capitalize to the persons who would have been entitled to it if it were distributed by way of dividend and in the same proportions.

 

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Limitation on owning securities

Neither English law nor our articles of association restrict in any way the ownership or voting of our shares by non-residents.

Uncertificated shares

Subject to the Companies Act 2006 and any applicable uncertificated securities rules (as defined in our articles of association), our board of directors may permit title to shares of any class to be issued or held otherwise than by a certificate and to be transferred by means of a “relevant system” (i.e., the CREST System) without a certificate and may make arrangements for a class of shares to be transferred to that relevant system.

Our board of directors may, subject to compliance with the uncertificated securities rules (as defined in our articles of association), determine at any time that title to any class of shares must be in certificated form and that such class of shares will cease to be transferred to a relevant system from a date specified by our board of directors. Our board of directors may take such steps as it sees fit in relation to the evidencing of and transfer of title to uncertificated shares, any records relating to the holding of uncertificated shares and the conversion of uncertificated shares to certificated shares, or vice-versa. Ordinary shares and Class A ordinary shares may be changed from uncertificated to certificated form (and vice versa) in accordance with and subject to the uncertificated securities rules (as defined in our articles of association).

We may, by notice to the holder of an uncertificated share, require that share to be converted into certificated form.

If, and subject to our articles of association or pursuant to the Companies Act 2006, we are entitled to sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of, forfeit, re-allot, accept the surrender of or otherwise enforce a lien over an uncertificated share, such entitlement shall include the right of our board of directors to:

 

(i)

require the holder of the uncertificated share by notice in writing to change that share from uncertificated to certificated form;

 

(ii)

appoint any person to act on behalf of the holder of the uncertificated share to take such steps as may be required in order to effect the transfer of that share; and

 

(iii)

take such other action that our board of directors considers appropriate to achieve the sale, transfer, disposal, forfeiture, re-allotment or surrender of that share or otherwise to enforce a lien in respect of that share.

Unless our board of directors determines otherwise, shares which a shareholder holds in uncertificated form shall be treated as separate holdings from any shares which that shareholder holds in certificated form and any shares issued or created out of or in respect of any uncertificated shares shall be uncertificated shares and any shares issued or created out of or in respect of any certificated shares shall be certificated shares.

Our board of directors may take such other action that our board of directors considers appropriate to achieve the sale, transfer, disposal, forfeiture, re-allotment or surrender of an uncertificated share or otherwise to enforce a lien in respect of it.

Other relevant UK laws and regulations

Takeover code

We believe that, as of the date of this prospectus, our place of central management and control is not in the UK (or the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man) for the purposes of the jurisdictional criteria of the Takeover Code. Accordingly, we believe that we are not currently subject to the Takeover Code and, as a result, our shareholders are not currently entitled to the benefit of certain takeover offer protections provided under the Takeover Code,

 

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including the rules regarding mandatory takeover bids (a summary of which is set out below). In the event that this changes, or if the interpretation and application of the Takeover Code by the Takeover Panel changes (including changes to the way in which the Takeover Panel assesses the application of the Takeover Code to English companies whose shares are listed outside of the UK), the Takeover Code may apply to us in the future.

Mandatory bid

The Takeover Code provides a framework within which takeovers of companies subject to it are conducted. In particular, the Takeover Code contains certain rules in respect of mandatory offers. Under the Takeover Code:

 

(a)

any person who, together with persons acting in concert with them acquires, whether by a series of transactions over a period of time or not, an interest in shares which (taken together with shares in which they are already interested, and in which persons acting in concert with them are interested) carry 30% or more of the voting rights of a company; or

 

(b)

any person who, together with persons acting in concert with them, is interested in shares which in the aggregate carry not less than 30% of the voting rights of a company but does not hold shares carrying more than 50% of such voting rights and such person, or any person acting in concert with them, acquires an interest in any other shares which increases the percentage of shares carrying voting rights in which they are interested, such person shall, except in limited circumstances, be obliged to extend offers, on the basis set out in Rules 9.3, 9.4 and 9.5 of the Takeover Code, to the holders of any class of equity share capital, whether voting or non-voting, and also to the holders of any other class of transferable securities carrying voting rights. Offers for different classes of equity share capital must be comparable; the Takeover Panel should be consulted in advance in such cases.

 

  (i)

An offer under Rule 9 of the Takeover Code must be in cash or be accompanied by a cash alternative and at the highest price paid for any interest in the shares by the person required to make an offer or any person acting in concert with them during the 12 months prior to the announcement of the offer.

 

  (ii)

Under the Takeover Code, “persons acting in concert” comprise persons who, pursuant to an agreement or understanding (whether formal or informal and whether or not in writing) actively co-operate, through the acquisition by them of an interest in share in a company, to obtain or consolidate control of the company. “Control” means an interest or interests, in shares carrying in aggregate 30% or more of the voting rights of a company, irrespective of whether the holding or holdings give de facto control.

Squeeze-out

 

(i)

Under Sections 979 to 982 of the Companies Act 2006, where a takeover offer has been made for us and the offeror has acquired, or unconditionally contracted to acquire, not less than 90% in value of the shares to which the offer relates and not less than 90% of the voting rights carried by those shares, it could then compulsorily acquire the remaining 10%. It would do so by sending a notice to outstanding shareholders telling them that it will compulsorily acquire their shares, provided that no such notice may be served after the end of: (a) the period of three months beginning with the day after the last day on which the offer can be accepted; or (b) if earlier, and the offer is not one to which section 943(1) of the Companies Act 2006 applies (being an offer subject to the Takeover Code), the period of six months beginning with the date of the offer.

 

(ii)

Six weeks following service of the notice, the offeror must send a copy of it to the company together with the consideration for the ordinary shares to which the notice relates, and an instrument of transfer executed on behalf of the outstanding shareholder(s) by a person appointed by the offeror.

 

(iii)

The company will hold the consideration on trust for the outstanding shareholders.

 

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Sell-out

 

(i)

Sections 983 to 985 of the Companies Act 2006 also give minority shareholders in the company a right to be bought out in certain circumstances by an offeror who has made a takeover offer. If a takeover offer relating to all the ordinary shares of the company is made and the offeror has acquired or unconditionally agreed to acquire not less than 90% in value of the voting shares and not less than 90% of the voting rights carried by those shares, at any time before the end of the period within which the offer could be accepted, any holder of shares to which the offer related who had not accepted the offer could by a written communication to the offeror require it to acquire those shares. The offeror is required to give any shareholder notice of their right to be bought out within one month of that right arising. The offeror may impose a time limit on the rights of minority shareholders to be bought out, but that period cannot end less than three months after the end of the acceptance period, or, if longer a period of three months from the date of the notice.

 

(ii)

If a shareholder exercises their rights, the offeror is bound to acquire those shares on the terms of the offer or on such other terms as may be agreed.

Disclosure of interest in shares

Pursuant to Part 22 of the Companies Act 2006, a company incorporated in England and Wales is empowered by notice in writing to require any person whom the company knows to be, or has reasonable cause to believe to be, interested in the company’s shares or at any time during the three years immediately preceding the date on which the notice is issued to have been so interested, within a reasonable time to disclose to the company details of that person’s interest and (so far as is within such person’s knowledge) details of any other interest that subsists or subsisted in those shares.

Under our articles of association, if a shareholder defaults in supplying us with the required details in relation to the shares in question, or the Default Shares, within the prescribed period of 14 days, the shareholder shall not be entitled to vote or exercise any other right conferred by membership in relation to general meetings. Where the Default Shares represent 0.25% or more in nominal value of the issued shares of the class in question (calculated exclusive of any shares held as treasury shares), the directors may direct that:

 

   

any dividend or other money payable in respect of the Default Shares shall be retained by us without any liability to pay interest on it when such dividend or other money is finally paid to the shareholder; and/or

 

   

no transfer by the relevant shareholder of shares (other than a transfer permitted in accordance with the provisions of our articles of association) may be registered (unless such shareholder is not in default and the transfer does not relate to Default Shares).

Purchase of own shares

English law permits a public limited company to purchase its own shares out of the distributable profits of the company or the proceeds of a fresh issue of shares made for the purpose of financing the purchase, subject to complying with procedural requirements under the Companies Act 2006 and provided that its articles of association do not prohibit it from doing so. Our articles of association, a summary of which is provided above, do not prohibit us from purchasing our own shares. A public limited company must not purchase its own shares if, as a result of the purchase, there would no longer be any issued shares of the company other than redeemable shares or shares held as treasury shares. Shares must be fully paid in order to be repurchased.

Any such purchase will be either a “market purchase” or “off-market purchase,” each as defined in the Companies Act 2006. A “market purchase” is a purchase made on a “recognized investment exchange” within the meaning of the UK Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, as amended, or FSMA, other than an overseas exchange. An “off-market purchase” is a purchase that is not made on a “recognized investment exchange.” Both “market purchases” and “off-market purchases” require prior shareholder approval by way of an ordinary resolution. In the case of an “off-market purchase,” a company’s shareholders, other than the shareholders from

 

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whom the company is purchasing shares, must approve the terms of the contract to purchase shares and in the case of a “market purchase,” the shareholders must approve the maximum number of shares that can be purchased and the maximum and minimum prices to be paid by the company. Both resolutions authorizing “market purchases” and “off-market purchases” must specify a date, not later than five years after the passing of the resolution, on which the authority to purchase is to expire.

Nasdaq is an “overseas exchange” for the purposes of the Companies Act 2006 and does not fall within the definition of a “recognized investment exchange” for the purposes of FSMA and any purchase made by us would need to comply with the procedural requirements under the Companies Act 2006 that regulate “off-market purchases.”

A share buy-back by a company of its shares will give rise to UK stamp duty reserve tax and stamp duty at the rate of 0.5% of the amount or value of the consideration payable by the company (rounded up to the next £5.00). The charge to stamp duty reserve tax will be cancelled or, if already paid, repaid (generally with interest), where a transfer instrument for stamp duty purposes has been duly stamped within six years of the charge arising (either by paying the stamp duty or by claiming an appropriate relief) or if the instrument is otherwise exempt from stamp duty.

Our articles of association do not have conditions governing changes to our capital which are more stringent than those required by law.

Distributions and dividends

Under the Companies Act 2006, before a company can lawfully make a distribution or dividend, it must ensure that it has sufficient distributable reserves, as determined on a non-consolidated basis. The basic rule is that a company’s profits available for the purpose of making a distribution are its accumulated, realized profits, so far as not previously utilized by distribution or capitalization, less its accumulated, realized losses, so far as not previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital duly made. The requirement to have sufficient distributable reserves before a distribution or dividend can be paid applies to us and to each of our subsidiaries that has been incorporated under English law.

As a public company, it is also not sufficient that we have made a distributable profit for the purpose of making a distribution. An additional capital maintenance requirement is imposed on us to ensure that our net worth is at least equal to the amount of our capital. A public company can only make a distribution:

 

   

if, at the time that the distribution is made, the amount of its net assets (that is, the total excess of assets over liabilities) is not less than the total of its called up share capital and undistributable reserves; and

 

   

if, and to the extent that, the distribution itself, at the time that it is made, does not reduce the amount of the net assets to less than that total.

Shareholder rights

Certain rights granted under the Companies Act 2006, including the right to requisition a general meeting or require a resolution to be put to shareholders at the annual general meeting, are only available to our members. For English law purposes, our members are the persons who are registered as the owners of the legal title to the shares and whose names are recorded in our share register. If a person who holds their ADSs in DTC wishes to exercise certain of the rights granted under the Companies Act 2006, they may be required to first take steps to withdraw their ADSs from the settlement system operated by DTC and become the registered holder of the shares in our share register. A withdrawal of shares from DTC may have tax implications. For additional information on the potential tax implications of withdrawing your shares from the settlement system operated by DTC, see “Material income tax considerations—UK taxation.”

 

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Exchange controls

There are no governmental laws, decrees, regulations or other legislation in the UK that may affect the import or export of capital, including the availability of cash and cash equivalents for use by us, or that may affect the remittance of dividends, interest, or other payments by us to non-resident holders of our ordinary shares or ADSs, other than, in accordance with currently applicable law, withholding tax requirements that may apply in respect of interest. There is no limitation imposed by English law or in our articles of association on the right of non-residents to hold or vote shares.

Differences in corporate law

The applicable provisions of the Companies Act 2006 differ from laws applicable to U.S. corporations and their shareholders. Set forth below is a summary of certain differences between the provisions of the Companies Act 2006 applicable to us and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware relating to shareholders’ rights and protections. This summary is not intended to be a complete discussion of the respective rights and it is qualified in its entirety by reference to Delaware law and English law.

 

    

England and Wales

  

Delaware

Number of Directors

   Under the Companies Act 2006, a public limited company must have at least two directors and the number of directors may be fixed by or in the manner provided for in a company’s articles of association.    Under Delaware law, a corporation must have at least one director and the number of directors shall be fixed by or in the manner provided in the bylaws.

Removal of Directors

   Under the Companies Act 2006, shareholders may remove a director without cause by an ordinary resolution (which is passed by a simple majority of those voting in person or by proxy at a general meeting) irrespective of any provisions of any service contract the director has with the company, provided 28 clear days’ notice of the resolution has been given to the company and its shareholders. On receipt of notice of an intended resolution to remove a director, the company must forthwith send a copy of the notice to the director concerned. Certain other procedural requirements under the Companies Act 2006 must also be followed, such as allowing the director to make representations against his or her removal either at the meeting or in writing.    Under Delaware law, any director or the entire board of directors may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors, except: (i) unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise, in the case of a corporation whose board of directors is classified, shareholders may effect such removal only for cause; or (ii) in the case of a corporation having cumulative voting, if less than the entire board of directors is to be removed, no director may be removed without cause if the votes cast against his removal would be sufficient to elect him or her if then cumulatively voted at an election of the entire board of directors, or, if there are classes of directors, at an election of the class of directors of which he is a part.

Vacancies on the Board of Directors

  

Under English law, the procedure by which directors, other than a company’s initial directors, are appointed is generally set out in a company’s articles of association, provided that where two or more persons are appointed as directors of a public limited company by resolution of the shareholders, resolutions appointing each director must be voted on individually unless a resolution has first been unanimously passed confirming that a single resolution appointing two or more directors may be tabled at that meeting.

  

Under Delaware law, vacancies and newly created directorships may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office (even though less than a quorum) or by a sole remaining director unless: (i) otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws of the corporation; or (ii) the certificate of incorporation directs that a particular class of stock is to elect such director, in which case a majority of the other directors elected by such class, or a sole remaining director elected by such class, will fill such vacancy.

 

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England and Wales

  

Delaware

Annual General Meeting

   Under the Companies Act 2006, a public limited company must hold an annual general meeting within the six-month period beginning with the day following the company’s annual accounting reference date.    Under Delaware law, the annual meeting of shareholders shall be held at such place, on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the board of directors or as provided in the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.

General Meeting

  

Under the Companies Act 2006, a general meeting of the shareholders of a public limited company may be called by the directors.

 

Shareholders holding at least 5% of the paid-up capital of the company carrying voting rights at general meetings (excluding any paid up capital held as treasury shares) can require the directors to call a general meeting and, if the directors fail to do so within a certain period, may themselves (or any of them representing more than one half of the total voting rights of all of them) convene a general meeting.

   Under Delaware law, special meetings of the shareholders may be called by the board of directors or by such person or persons as may be authorized by the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.

Notice of General Meetings

  

Under the Companies Act 2006, at least 21 clear days’ notice must be given for an annual general meeting and any resolutions to be proposed at the meeting, subject to a company’s articles of association providing for a longer period. Subject to a company’s articles of association providing for a longer period, at least 14 clear days’ notice is required for any other general meeting of a public limited company. In addition, certain matters, such as the removal of directors or auditors, require special notice, which is 28 clear days’ notice. The shareholders of a public company (that is not a “traded company,” as such term is defined in Part 13 of the Companies Act 2006) may in all cases consent to a shorter notice period, the proportion of shareholders’ consent required being 100% of those entitled to attend and vote in the case of an annual general meeting and, in the case of any other general meeting, a majority in number of the members having a right to attend and vote at the meeting, being a majority who together hold not less than 95% in nominal value of the shares giving a right to attend and vote at the meeting.

  

Under Delaware law, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws, written notice of any meeting of the shareholders must be given to each shareholder entitled to vote at the meeting not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting and shall specify the place, date, hour and purpose or purposes of the meeting.

Quorum

   Subject to the provisions of a company’s articles of association, the Companies Act 2006 provides that two shareholders present at a meeting (in person, by proxy or authorized representative under the    The certificate of incorporation or bylaws may specify the number of shares, the holders of which shall be present or represented by proxy at any meeting in order to constitute a quorum, but in no event shall

 

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England and Wales

  

Delaware

   Companies Act 2006) shall constitute a quorum for companies with more than one shareholder.    a quorum consist of less than one third of the shares entitled to vote at the meeting. In the absence of such specification in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws, a majority of the shares entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of stockholders.

Proxy

   Under the Companies Act 2006, at any meeting of shareholders, a shareholder may designate another person to attend, speak and vote at the meeting on their behalf by proxy.    Under Delaware law, at any meeting of shareholders, a shareholder may designate another person to act for such shareholder by proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A director of a Delaware corporation may not issue a proxy representing the director’s voting rights as a director.

Preemptive Rights

   Under the Companies Act 2006, “equity securities,” being: (i) shares in the company other than shares that, with respect to dividends and capital, carry a right to participate only up to a specified amount in a distribution, referred to as “ordinary shares,”; or (ii) rights to subscribe for, or to convert securities into, ordinary shares, proposed to be allotted for cash must be offered first to the existing equity shareholders in the company in proportion to the respective nominal value of their holdings, unless an exception applies or a special resolution to the contrary has been passed by shareholders in a general meeting or the articles of association provide otherwise in each case in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act 2006.    Under Delaware law, shareholders have no preemptive rights to subscribe to additional issues of stock or to any security convertible into such stock unless, and except to the extent that, such rights are expressly provided for in the certificate of incorporation.

Liability of Directors and Officers

  

Under the Companies Act 2006, any provision, whether contained in a company’s articles of association or any contract or otherwise, that purports to exempt a director of a company, to any extent, from any liability that would otherwise attach to him or her in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company, is void. Any provision by which a company directly or indirectly provides an indemnity, to any extent, for a director of the company or of an associated company against any liability attaching to him or her in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company of which he or she is a director is also void except as permitted by the Companies Act 2006, which provides exceptions for the

  

Under Delaware law, a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may include a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation and its shareholders for damages arising from a breach of fiduciary duty as a director. However, no provision can limit the liability of a director for:

 

•  any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its shareholders;

 

•  acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

•  intentional or negligent payment of unlawful dividends or stock purchases or redemptions; or

 

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England and Wales

  

Delaware

   company to: (i) purchase and maintain insurance against such liability; (ii) provide a “qualifying third party indemnity,” or an indemnity against liability incurred by the director to a person other than the company or an associated company as long as he or she is successful in defending the claim or criminal proceedings; and (iii) provide a “qualifying pension scheme indemnity,” or an indemnity against liability incurred in connection with the company’s activities as trustee of an occupational pension plan.   

 

•  any transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit.

Voting Rights

   Our articles of association require that all shareholder matters are voted on by way of a poll vote. Each of our shareholders will have one vote for each share held by that shareholder. Under English law, an ordinary resolution is passed on a poll if it is approved by holders representing a simple majority of the total voting rights of shareholders present, in person or by proxy, who, being entitled to vote on the resolution, vote in favor of it. A special resolution requires the affirmative vote of not less than 75% of the votes cast by shareholders present, in person or by proxy, at the meeting. Voting by show of hands is not permitted under our articles of association and shareholders will only be permitted to vote by show of hands in the event that our articles of association are amended in the future to allow shareholder matters to be voted on by a show of hands.    Delaware law provides that, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each shareholder is entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such shareholder.

Standard of Conduct for Directors

  

Under English law, a director owes various statutory and fiduciary duties to the company, including:

 

•  to act in accordance with the company’s constitution and only exercise his powers for the purposes for which they are conferred;

 

•  to act in the way he considers, in good faith, would be most likely to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole;

 

•  to exercise independent judgment;

 

•  to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence;

 

•  to avoid a situation in which he has, or can have, a direct or indirect interest that conflicts, or possibly conflicts, with the interests of the company;

  

Delaware law does not contain specific provisions setting forth the standard of conduct of a director. The scope of the fiduciary duties of directors is generally determined by the courts of the State of Delaware. In general, directors have a duty to act without self-interest, on a well-informed basis and in a manner they reasonably believe to be in the best interest of the stockholders.

 

Directors of a Delaware corporation owe fiduciary duties of care and loyalty to the corporation and to its stockholders. The duty of care generally requires that a director act in good faith, with the care that an ordinarily prudent person would exercise under similar circumstances. Under this duty, a director must inform himself or herself of all material information reasonably available regarding a significant transaction. The duty of loyalty requires that a director act in a manner he

 

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England and Wales

  

Delaware

  

 

•  not to accept benefits from a third party conferred by reason of his being a director or doing, or not doing, anything as a director; and

 

•  a duty to declare any interest that he has, whether directly or indirectly, in a proposed or existing transaction or arrangement with the company.

  

reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation. He must not use his corporate position for personal gain or advantage. In general, but subject to certain exceptions, actions of a director are presumed to have been made on an informed basis, in good faith and in the honest belief that the action taken was in the best interests of the corporation. However, this presumption may be rebutted by evidence of a breach of one of the fiduciary duties. Delaware courts have also imposed a heightened standard of conduct upon directors of a Delaware corporation who take any action designed to defeat a threatened change in control of the corporation.

 

In addition, under Delaware law, when the board of directors of a Delaware corporation approves the sale or break-up of a corporation, the board of directors may, in certain circumstances, have a duty to obtain the highest value reasonably available to the stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

American depositary shares

The Bank of New York Mellon is the depositary for the ADSs. As depositary, The Bank of New York Mellon will register and deliver the ADSs. Each ADS represents one ordinary share (or a right to receive and to exercise the beneficial ownership interests in one ordinary share) deposited with The Bank of New York Mellon, or any successor, as custodian, acting through an office located in the United Kingdom. Each ADS will also represent any other securities, cash or other property that may be held by the depositary. The deposited shares together with any other securities, cash or other property held by the depositary are referred to as the deposited securities. The depositary’s office at which the ADSs will be administered and its principal executive office are located at 240 Greenwich Street, New York, NY 10286.

Holders of our ADSs may hold ADSs either: (A) directly: (i) by having an American Depositary Receipt, also referred to as an ADR, which is a certificate evidencing a specific number of ADSs, registered in your name; or (ii) by having uncertificated ADSs registered in your name; or (B) indirectly by holding a security entitlement in ADSs through your broker or other financial institution that is a direct or indirect participant in The Depository Trust Company, also called DTC. If you hold ADSs directly, you are a registered ADS holder, also referred to as an ADS holder. This description assumes you are an ADS holder. If you hold the ADSs indirectly, you must rely on the procedures of your broker or other financial institution to assert the rights of ADS holders described in this section. You should consult with your broker or financial institution to find out what those procedures are.

Registered holders of uncertificated ADSs will receive statements from the depositary confirming their holdings.

As an ADS holder, we will not treat you as one of our shareholders and you will not have shareholder rights. English law governs shareholder rights. The depositary will be the holder of the shares underlying your ADSs. As a registered holder of ADSs, you will have ADS holder rights. A deposit agreement among us, the depositary, ADS holders and all other persons indirectly or beneficially holding ADSs sets out ADS holder rights as well as the rights and obligations of the depositary. New York law governs the deposit agreement and the ADSs.

The following is a summary of the material provisions of the deposit agreement. For more complete information, you should read the entire deposit agreement and the form of ADR. Directions on how to obtain copies of those documents are provided in “Where You Can Find Additional Information.” The portions of this summary description that are italicized describe matters that may be relevant to the ownership of ADSs but that may not be contained in the deposit agreement.

Dividends and other distributions

The depositary has agreed to pay or distribute to ADS holders the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on shares or other deposited securities, upon payment or deduction of its fees, taxes and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of shares your ADSs represent.

Cash. The depositary will convert any cash dividend or other cash distribution we pay on the shares into U.S. dollars, if it can do so on a reasonable basis and can transfer the U.S. dollars to the United States. If that is not possible or if any government approval is needed and cannot be obtained, the deposit agreement allows the depositary to distribute the foreign currency only to those ADS holders to whom it is possible to do so. It will hold the foreign currency it cannot convert for the account of the ADS holders who have not been paid. It will not invest the foreign currency and it will not be liable for any interest.

Before making a distribution, any withholding taxes, or other governmental charges that must be paid will be deducted. See “Material income tax considerations.” The depositary will distribute only whole U.S. dollars and cents and will round fractional cents to the nearest whole cent. If the exchange rates fluctuate during a time when the depositary cannot convert the foreign currency, you may lose some of the value of the distribution.

 

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Shares. The depositary may distribute additional ADSs representing any shares we distribute as a dividend or free distribution. The depositary will only distribute whole ADSs. It will sell shares which would require it to deliver a fraction of an ADS (or ADSs representing those shares) and distribute the net proceeds in the same way as it does with cash. If the depositary does not distribute additional ADSs, the outstanding ADSs will also represent the new shares. The depositary may sell a portion of the distributed shares (or ADSs representing those shares) sufficient to pay its fees and expenses in connection with that distribution.

Rights to purchase additional shares. If we offer holders of our securities any rights to subscribe for additional shares or any other rights, the depositary may: (i) exercise those rights on behalf of ADS holders; (ii) distribute those rights to ADS holders; or (iii) sell those rights and distribute the net proceeds to ADS holders, in each case after deduction or upon payment of its fees and expenses. To the extent the depositary does not do any of those things, it will allow the rights to lapse. In that case, you will receive no value for them. The depositary will exercise or distribute rights only if we ask it to and provide satisfactory assurances to the depositary that it is legal to do so. If the depositary will exercise rights, it will purchase the securities to which the rights relate and distribute those securities or, in the case of shares, new ADSs representing the new shares, to subscribing ADS holders, but only if ADS holders have paid the exercise price to the depositary. U.S. securities laws may restrict the ability of the depositary to distribute rights or ADSs or other securities issued on exercise of rights to all or certain ADS holders, and the securities distributed may be subject to restrictions on transfer.

Other Distributions. The depositary will send to ADS holders anything else we distribute on deposited securities by any means it thinks is legal, fair and practical. If it cannot make the distribution in that way, the depositary has a choice. It may decide to sell what we distributed and distribute the net proceeds, in the same way as it does with cash. Or, it may decide to hold what we distributed, in which case ADSs will also represent the newly distributed property. However, the depositary is not required to distribute any securities (other than ADSs) to ADS holders unless it receives satisfactory evidence from us that it is legal to make that distribution. The depositary may sell a portion of the distributed securities or property sufficient to pay its fees and expenses in connection with that distribution. U.S. securities laws may restrict the ability of the depositary to distribute securities to all or certain ADS holders, and the securities distributed may be subject to restrictions on transfer. The depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any ADS holders. We have no obligation to register ADSs, shares, rights or other securities under the Securities Act. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, shares, rights or anything else to ADS holders. This means that you may not receive the distributions we make on our shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you.

Deposit, withdrawal and cancellation

The depositary will deliver ADSs if you or your broker deposits shares or evidence of rights to receive shares with the custodian. Upon payment of its fees and expenses and of any taxes or charges, such as stamp taxes or stock transfer taxes or fees, the depositary will register the appropriate number of ADSs in the names you request and will deliver the ADSs to or upon the order of the person or persons that made the deposit.

You may surrender your ADSs for the purpose of withdrawal at the depositary’s office. Upon payment of its fees and expenses and of any taxes or charges, such as stamp taxes or stock transfer taxes or fees, the depositary will deliver the shares and any other deposited securities underlying the ADSs to the ADS holder or a person the ADS holder designates at the office of the custodian. Or, at your request, risk and expense, the depositary will deliver the deposited securities at its office, if feasible. However, the depositary is not required to accept surrender of ADSs to the extent it would require delivery of a fraction of a deposited share or other security. The depositary may charge you a fee and its expenses for instructing the custodian regarding delivery of deposited securities.

You may surrender your ADR to the depositary for the purpose of exchanging your ADR for uncertificated ADSs. The depositary will cancel that ADR and will send to the ADS holder a statement confirming that the ADS holder is the registered holder of uncertificated ADSs. Upon receipt by the depositary of a proper

 

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instruction from a registered holder of uncertificated ADSs requesting the exchange of uncertificated ADSs for certificated ADSs, the depositary will execute and deliver to the ADS holder an ADR evidencing those ADSs.

Voting rights

ADS holders may instruct the depositary how to vote the number of deposited shares their ADSs represent. The voting rights of holders of ordinary shares are described in “Description of share capital—Ordinary shares.”

If we request the depositary to solicit your voting instructions (and we are not required to do so), the depositary will notify you of an annual general meeting and send or make voting materials available to you. Those materials will describe the matters to be voted on and explain how ADS holders may instruct the depositary how to vote. For instructions to be valid, they must reach the depositary by a date set by the depositary. The depositary will try, as far as practical, subject to the laws of England and Wales and the provisions of our articles of association or similar documents, to vote or to have its agents vote the shares or other deposited securities as instructed by ADS holders. If we do not request the depositary to solicit your voting instructions, you can still send voting instructions, and, in that case, the depositary may try to vote as you instruct, but it is not required to do so.

Except by instructing the depositary as described above, you will not be able to exercise voting rights unless you surrender your ADSs and withdraw the shares. However, you may not know about the annual general meeting enough in advance to withdraw the shares. In any event, the depositary will not exercise any discretion in voting deposited securities and it will only vote or attempt to vote as instructed or as described in the following sentence. If we asked the depositary to solicit your instructions at least 45 days before the meeting date, but the depositary does not receive voting instructions from you by the specified date and we confirm to the depositary: (1) that we wish to be given a proxy; (2) we reasonably don’t know of any substantial opposition to the matters subject to vote; and (3) the matters subject to vote are not materially adverse to the shareholders, the depositary will consider you to have authorized and directed it to give a discretionary proxy to a person designated by us to vote the number of deposited securities represented by your ADSs. The depositary will give a discretionary proxy in those circumstances to vote on all questions to be voted upon unless we notify the depositary that:

 

   

we do not wish to receive a discretionary proxy;

 

   

there is substantial shareholder opposition to the particular question; or

 

   

the particular question would have an adverse impact on our shareholders.

We are required to notify the depositary if one of the conditions specified above exists.

We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your shares. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise voting rights and there may be nothing you can do if your shares are not voted as you requested.

In order to give you a reasonable opportunity to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of voting rights relating to deposited securities, if we request the depositary to act, we agree to give the depositary notice of any such meeting and details concerning the matters to be voted upon at least 45 days in advance of the meeting date.

 

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Fees and expenses

 

Persons depositing or withdrawing shares or ADS holders
must pay:

  

For:

$5.00 (or less) per 100 ADSs (or portion of 100 ADSs)   

Issuance of ADSs, including issuances resulting from a distribution of shares or rights or other property

 

Cancellation of ADSs for the purpose of withdrawal, including if the deposit agreement terminates

$0.05 (or less) per ADS    Any cash distribution to ADS holders
A fee equivalent to the fee that would be payable if securities distributed to you had been shares and the shares had been deposited for issuance of ADSs    Distribution of securities distributed to holders of deposited securities (including rights) that are distributed by the depositary to ADS holders
$0.05 (or less) per ADS per calendar year    Depositary services
Registration or transfer fees    Transfer and registration of shares on our share register to or from the name of the depositary or its agent when you deposit or withdraw shares
Expenses of the depositary   

Cable (including SWIFT), telex and facsimile transmissions (when expressly provided in the deposit agreement)

 

Converting foreign currency to U.S. dollars

Taxes and other governmental charges the depositary or the custodian has to pay on any ADSs or shares underlying ADSs, such as stock transfer taxes, stamp duty or withholding taxes    As necessary
Any charges incurred by the depositary or its agents for servicing the deposited securities    As necessary

The depositary collects its fees for delivery and surrender of ADSs directly from investors depositing shares or surrendering ADSs for the purpose of withdrawal or from intermediaries acting for them. The depositary collects fees for making distributions to investors by deducting those fees from the amounts distributed or by selling a portion of distributable property to pay the fees. The depositary may collect its annual fee for depositary services by deduction from cash distributions or by directly billing investors or by charging the book-entry system accounts of participants acting for them. The depositary may collect any of its fees by deduction from any cash distribution payable (or by selling a portion of securities or other property distributable) to ADS holders that are obligated to pay those fees. The depositary may generally refuse to provide fee-attracting services until its fees for those services are paid.

From time to time, the depositary may make payments to us to reimburse us for costs and expenses generally arising out of establishment and maintenance of the ADS program, waive fees and expenses for services provided to us by the depositary or share revenue from the fees collected from ADS holders. In performing its duties under the deposit agreement, the depositary may use brokers, dealers, foreign currency dealers or other service providers that are owned by or affiliated with the depositary and that may earn or share fees, spreads or commissions.

The depositary may convert currency itself or through any of its affiliates and, in those cases, acts as principal for its own account and not as agent, advisor, broker or fiduciary on behalf of any other person and earns revenue, including, without limitation, transaction spreads, that it will retain for its own account. The revenue is based on,

 

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among other things, the difference between the exchange rate assigned to the currency conversion made under the deposit agreement and the rate that the depositary or its affiliate receives when buying or selling foreign currency for its own account. The depositary makes no representation that the exchange rate used or obtained in any currency conversion under the deposit agreement will be the most favorable rate that could be obtained at the time or that the method by which that rate will be determined will be the most favorable to ADS holders, subject to the depositary’s obligations under the deposit agreement. The methodology used to determine exchange rates used in currency conversions is available upon request.

Payment of taxes

You will be responsible for any taxes or other governmental charges payable on your ADSs or on the deposited securities represented by any of your ADSs. The depositary may refuse to register any transfer of your ADSs or allow you to withdraw the deposited securities represented by your ADSs until those taxes or other charges are paid. It may apply payments owed to you or sell deposited securities represented by your ADSs to pay any taxes owed and you will remain liable for any deficiency. If the depositary sells deposited securities, it will, if appropriate, reduce the number of ADSs to reflect the sale and pay to ADS holders any proceeds, or send to ADS holders any property, remaining after it has paid the taxes.

Tender and exchange offers; redemption, replacement or cancellation of deposited securities

The depositary will not tender deposited securities in any voluntary tender or exchange offer unless instructed to do so by an ADS holder surrendering ADSs and subject to any conditions or procedures the depositary may establish.

If deposited securities are redeemed for cash in a transaction that is mandatory for the depositary as a holder of deposited securities, the depositary will call for surrender of a corresponding number of ADSs and distribute the net redemption money to the holders of called ADSs upon surrender of those ADSs.

If there is any change in the deposited securities such as a sub-division, combination or other reclassification, or any merger, consolidation, recapitalization or reorganization affecting the issuer of deposited securities in which the depositary receives new securities in exchange for or in lieu of the old deposited securities, the depositary will hold those replacement securities as deposited securities under the deposit agreement. However, if the depositary decides it would not be lawful and practical to hold the replacement securities because those securities could not be distributed to ADS holders or for any other reason, the depositary may instead sell the replacement securities and distribute the net proceeds upon surrender of the ADSs.

If there is a replacement of the deposited securities and the depositary will continue to hold the replacement securities, the depositary may distribute new ADSs representing the new deposited securities or ask you to surrender your outstanding ADRs in exchange for new ADRs identifying the new deposited securities.

If there are no deposited securities underlying ADSs, including if the deposited securities are cancelled, or if the deposited securities underlying ADSs have become apparently worthless, the depositary may call for surrender of those ADSs or cancel those ADSs upon notice to the ADS holders.

Amendment and termination

We may agree with the depositary to amend the deposit agreement and the ADRs without your consent for any reason. If an amendment adds or increases fees or charges, except for taxes and other governmental charges or expenses of the depositary for registration fees, facsimile costs, delivery charges or similar items, or prejudices a substantial right of ADS holders, it will not become effective for outstanding ADSs until 30 days after the depositary notifies ADS holders of the amendment. At the time an amendment becomes effective, you are considered, by continuing to hold your ADSs, to agree to the amendment and to be bound by the ADRs and the deposit agreement as amended.

 

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The depositary will initiate termination of the deposit agreement if we instruct it to do so. The depositary may initiate termination of the deposit agreement if:

 

   

60 days have passed since the depositary told us it wants to resign but a successor depositary has not been appointed and accepted its appointment;

 

   

we delist the ADSs from an exchange in the United States on which they were listed and do not list the ADSs on another exchange in the United States or make arrangements for trading of ADSs on the U.S. over-the-counter market;

 

   

we delist our shares from an exchange outside the United States on which they were listed and do not list the shares on another exchange outside the United States;

 

   

the depositary has reason to believe the ADSs have become, or will become, ineligible for registration on Form F-6 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;

 

   

we appear to be insolvent or enter insolvency proceedings;

 

   

all or substantially all the value of the deposited securities has been distributed either in cash or in the form of securities;

 

   

there are no deposited securities underlying the ADSs or the underlying deposited securities have become apparently worthless; or

 

   

there has been a replacement of deposited securities.

If the deposit agreement will terminate, the depositary will notify ADS holders at least 90 days before the termination date. At any time after the termination date, the depositary may sell the deposited securities. After that, the depositary will hold the money it received on the sale, as well as any other cash it is holding under the deposit agreement, unsegregated and without liability for interest, for the pro rata benefit of the ADS holders that have not surrendered their ADSs. Normally, the depositary will sell as soon as practicable after the termination date.

After the termination date and before the depositary sells, ADS holders can still surrender their ADSs and receive delivery of deposited securities, except that the depositary may refuse to accept a surrender for the purpose of withdrawing deposited securities or reverse previously accepted surrenders of that kind that have not settled if it would interfere with the selling process. The depositary may refuse to accept a surrender for the purpose of withdrawing sale proceeds until all the deposited securities have been sold. The depositary will continue to collect distributions on deposited securities, but, after the termination date, the depositary is not required to register any transfer of ADSs or distribute any dividends or other distributions on deposited securities to the ADSs holder (until they surrender their ADSs) or give any notices or perform any other duties under the deposit agreement except as described in this paragraph.

Limitations on obligations and liability

Limits on our obligations and the obligations of the depositary; limits on liability to holders of ADSs

The deposit agreement expressly limits our obligations and the obligations of the depositary. It also limits our liability and the liability of the depositary. We and the depositary:

 

   

are only obligated to take the actions specifically set forth in the deposit agreement without negligence or bad faith, and the depositary will not be a fiduciary or have any fiduciary duty to holders of ADSs;

 

   

are not liable if we are or it is prevented or delayed by law or by events or circumstances beyond our or its ability to prevent or counteract with reasonable care or effort from performing our or its obligations under the deposit agreement;

 

   

are not liable if we or it exercises discretion permitted under the deposit agreement;

 

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are not liable for any action or inaction in reliance on the advice or information received from legal counsel, accountants, any person presenting ordinary shares for deposit, any holder of ADSs or authorized representatives thereof, or any other person believed by either of us in good faith to be competent to give such advice or information;

 

   

are not liable for the inability of any holder of ADSs to benefit from any distribution on deposited securities that is not made available to holders of ADSs under the terms of the deposit agreement, or for any special, consequential or punitive damages for any breach of the terms of the deposit agreement;

 

   

have no obligation to become involved in a lawsuit or other proceeding related to the ADSs or the deposit agreement on your behalf or on behalf of any other person;

 

   

may rely upon any documents we believe or it believes in good faith to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person;

 

   

are not liable for the acts or omissions of any securities depository, clearing agency or settlement system; and

 

   

the depositary has no duty to make any determination or provide any information as to our tax status, or any liability for any tax consequences that may be incurred by ADS holders as a result of owning or holding ADSs or be liable for the inability or failure of an ADS holder to obtain the benefit of a foreign tax credit, reduced rate of withholding or refund of amounts withheld in respect of tax or any other tax benefit.

In the deposit agreement, we and the depositary agree to indemnify each other under certain circumstances.

Requirements for depositary actions

Before the depositary will deliver or register a transfer of ADSs, make a distribution on ADSs, or permit withdrawal of shares, the depositary may require:

 

   

payment of stock transfer or other taxes or other governmental charges and transfer or registration fees charged by third parties for the transfer of any shares or other deposited securities;

 

   

satisfactory proof of the identity and genuineness of any signature or other information it deems necessary; and

 

   

compliance with regulations it may establish, from time to time, consistent with the deposit agreement, including presentation of transfer documents.

The depositary may refuse to deliver ADSs or register transfers of ADSs when the transfer books of the depositary or our transfer books are closed or at any time if the depositary or we think it advisable to do so.

Your right to receive the shares underlying your ADSs

ADS holders have the right to cancel their ADSs and withdraw the underlying shares at any time except:

 

   

when temporary delays arise because: (i) the depositary has closed its transfer books or we have closed our transfer books; (ii) the transfer of shares is blocked to permit voting at an annual general meeting; or (iii) we are paying a dividend on our shares;

 

   

when you owe money to pay fees, taxes and similar charges; or

 

   

when it is necessary to prohibit withdrawals in order to comply with any laws or governmental regulations that apply to ADSs or to the withdrawal of shares or other deposited securities.

This right of withdrawal may not be limited by any other provision of the deposit agreement.

 

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Direct registration system

In the deposit agreement, all parties to the deposit agreement acknowledge that:

 

   

the Direct Registration System, also referred to as DRS, and Profile Modification System, also referred to as Profile, will apply to the ADSs. DRS is a system administered by DTC that facilitates interchange between registered holding of uncertificated ADSs and holding of security entitlements in ADSs through DTC and a DTC participant. Profile is a feature of DRS that allows a DTC participant, claiming to act on behalf of a registered holder of uncertificated ADSs, to direct the depositary to register a transfer of those ADSs to DTC or its nominee and to deliver those ADSs to the DTC account of that DTC participant without receipt by the depositary of prior authorization from the ADS holder to register that transfer; and

 

   

in connection with and in accordance with the arrangements and procedures relating to DRS/Profile, the parties to the deposit agreement understand that the depositary will not determine whether the DTC participant that is claiming to be acting on behalf of an ADS holder in requesting registration of transfer and delivery as described in the paragraph above has the actual authority to act on behalf of the ADS holder (notwithstanding any requirements under the Uniform Commercial Code). In the deposit agreement, the parties agree that the depositary’s reliance on and compliance with instructions received by the depositary through the DRS/Profile system and in accordance with the deposit agreement will not constitute negligence or bad faith on the part of the depositary.

Books of depositary; shareholder communications; inspection of register of holders of ADSs

The depositary will maintain ADS holder records at its depositary office. The depositary will make available for your inspection at its office all communications that it receives from us as a holder of deposited securities that we make generally available to holders of deposited securities. The depositary will send you copies of those communications or otherwise make those communications available to you if we ask it to. You have a right to inspect the register of holders of ADSs, but not for the purpose of contacting those holders about a matter unrelated to our business or the ADSs.

Jury trial waiver

The deposit agreement provides that, to the extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws. If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable based upon the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with applicable case law.

You will not, by agreeing to the terms of the deposit agreement, be deemed to have waived our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we so indicate in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any debt securities offered under such prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, and to the extent the terms set forth in a prospectus supplement differ from the terms described below, the terms set forth in the prospectus supplement shall control.

We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings under this prospectus, debt securities, which may be senior or subordinated. We will issue any such senior debt securities under a senior indenture that we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the senior indenture. We will issue any such subordinated debt securities under a subordinated indenture, which we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. We use the term “indentures” to refer to either the senior indenture or the subordinated indenture, as applicable. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We use the term “debenture trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.

General

Each indenture provides that debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and may be denominated and payable in foreign currencies or units based on or relating to foreign currencies. Neither indenture limits the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder, and each indenture provides that the specific terms of any series of debt securities shall be set forth in, or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution and/or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.

We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

 

   

title or designation;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount and any limit on the amount that may be issued;

 

   

the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

 

   

whether we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms of any global securities and who the depositary will be;

 

   

the maturity date and the date or dates on which principal will be payable;

 

   

the interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the date or dates interest will be payable and the record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

   

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

   

the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

 

   

the place or places where payments will be payable;

 

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our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;

 

   

the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;

 

   

whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

 

   

whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to a series of debt securities;

 

   

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities. We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Conversion or exchange rights

We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our ordinary shares or our other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of ordinary shares or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, merger or sale; no protection in event of a change of control or highly leveraged transaction

The indentures do not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control), which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

Events of Default Under the Indenture

The following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

   

if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

 

   

if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;

 

   

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant set forth in the debt securities of such series or the applicable indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to and for the benefit of holders of

 

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another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice from the debenture trustee or holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

   

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.

No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of an event of default may constitute an event of default under any bank credit agreements we may have in existence from time to time. In addition, the occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the debenture trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of and premium and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. Before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained with respect to debt securities of any series, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture (including payments or deposits in respect of principal, premium or interest that had become due other than as a result of such acceleration). We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the debenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the debenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the debenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the debenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

   

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

   

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the debenture trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

 

   

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

   

the holder previously has given written notice to the debenture trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the debenture trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

 

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the debenture trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.

We will periodically file statements with the applicable debenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the applicable indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

The debenture trustee and we may change the applicable indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

 

   

to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and

 

   

to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series issued pursuant to such indenture.

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the debenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) that is affected. However, the debenture trustee and we may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities;

 

   

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities;

 

   

reducing the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

   

making the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security; or

 

   

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment or waiver.

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series or in respect of a covenant or provision, which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the series affected; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:

 

   

the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

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replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

   

maintain paying agencies;

 

   

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

   

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

   

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged with respect to a series, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, the premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange, and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange or in the applicable indenture, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Debenture Trustee

The debenture trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the applicable indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable

 

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indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the debenture trustee under such indenture must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the debenture trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay the principal of and any premium and interest due on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, will we make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the debenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the debenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities

Our obligations pursuant to any subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of senior indebtedness we may incur. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

General

We may issue warrants to purchase our ordinary shares represented by ADSs and/or debt securities in one or more series together with other securities or separately, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Particular terms of the warrants will be described in the warrant agreements and the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants.

The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:

 

   

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

the designation, amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the exercise price for our ADSs and the number of ADSs to be received upon exercise;

 

   

if applicable, the exercise price for our debt securities, the amount of debt securities to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of debt securities;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in fully registered form or bearer form, in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences and any applicable material UK tax consequences;

 

   

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and the ADSs and/or debt securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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SELLING SHAREHOLDER

The selling shareholder is a former holder of our preferred shares and current holder of our ordinary shares originally acquired through several private placements consummated prior to the completion of our initial public offering, or IPO, in April 2021. All preferred shares converted into ordinary shares in connection with our IPO. Syncona Portfolio Limited (“Syncona”) is a related party as Syncona owns more than 10% of our outstanding voting securities and is therefore one of our principal owners. In addition, the chief executive officer of Syncona Investment Management Limited, the investment manager of Syncona Limited (the ultimate parent company of Syncona), Dr. Martin Murphy, was a member of our board of directors until the completion of the IPO.

We are party to an amended and restated registration rights agreement with Syncona and certain of our other shareholders, dated as of February 8, 2021 (the “Registration Rights Agreement”), which provides the holders of our ordinary shares party thereto with certain rights with respect to the registration of ordinary shares held by them under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Additional information regarding such registration rights may be found in the section entitled “Item 10.B.–Memorandum and Articles of Association – Description of share capital and articles of association-Registration rights” incorporated by reference from our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 1, 2022, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in our subsequent filings with the SEC. We are registering the ADSs in order to permit the selling shareholder to offer their ordinary shares in the form of ADSs for resale from time to time.

When we refer to “selling shareholder” in this prospectus, we mean the shareholder listed in the table below.

The table below sets forth, to our knowledge, information about the selling shareholder as of September 30, 2022.

We do not know when or in what amounts the selling shareholder may offer ordinary shares (including in the form of ADSs) registered for resale pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and the selling shareholder might not sell any or all of such shares. Because the selling shareholder may offer all or some of such ordinary shares and because there are currently no agreements or understandings with respect to the sale of any ordinary shares, we cannot estimate the number of ordinary shares that will be held by the selling shareholder after completion of this offering. However, for purposes of this table, we have assumed that, after completion of this offering, none of such shares will be held by the selling shareholder.

Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC and includes voting or investment power with respect to shares of our ordinary shares, including ordinary shares beneficially owned pursuant to outstanding options, warrants and other derivative securities that are exercisable or exchangeable for our ordinary shares within 60 days of September 30, 2022. The inclusion of any shares in this table does not constitute an admission of beneficial ownership by any person named below.

The selling shareholder may have sold or transferred, in transactions exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act, some or all of their ordinary shares since the date on which the information in the table below is presented. Information about the selling shareholder may change over time.

 

Name of Selling Shareholder

   Number of
Shares
Beneficially
Owned Prior
to the
Offering(1)
     Percentage of
Shares
Beneficially
Owned Prior
to the
Offering
    Number of
Shares
Registered
for Sale
Hereby(3)
     Number of
Shares
Beneficially
Owned
After the
Offering
     Percentage
of Shares

Beneficially
Owned
After the
Offering
 

Syncona Portfolio Limited (2)

     11,086,909        28.19     5,543,454        5,543,455        14.10
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)

This table is based upon information supplied by the selling shareholder, which information may not be accurate as of the date hereof. We have determined beneficial ownership in accordance with the rules of the SEC. Except as indicated by the footnotes below, we believe, based on the information furnished to us, that

 

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  the selling shareholder named in the table above has sole voting and investment power with respect to all ordinary shares that they beneficially own, subject to applicable community property laws. Applicable percentages are based on 39,322,396 shares outstanding on September 30, 2022, adjusted as required by rules promulgated by the SEC.
(2)

Syncona Portfolio Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of Syncona Holdings Limited, which, in turn, is a wholly controlled subsidiary of Syncona Limited, a publicly-listed company. Each of Syncona Holdings Limited and Syncona Limited may be deemed to have voting and dispositive power over the securities held by Syncona Portfolio Limited. Investment and voting decisions with respect to these securities are made by Syncona Portfolio Limited acting upon the recommendation of an investment committee of Syncona Investment Management Limited, also a subsidiary of Syncona Holdings Limited. The members of this investment committee consist of Martin Murphy and Chris Hollowood. The address for Syncona Portfolio Limited is Arnold House, St Julian’s Avenue, St Peter Port, Guernsey GY1 3RD, Channel Islands.

(3)

The Securities to be registered for sale hereunder consist of 5,543,454 ordinary shares in the form of ADSs.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We and the selling shareholder may use any one or more of the following methods when disposing of their securities or interests therein:

 

   

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker-dealer solicits purchasers;

 

   

one or more underwritten offerings;

 

   

block trades in which the broker-dealer will attempt to sell the securities as agent, but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

   

purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its accounts;

 

   

an exchange distribution in accordance with the rules of the applicable exchange;

 

   

privately negotiated transactions;

 

   

distributions to the selling shareholder’s members, partners, or shareholders;

 

   

short sales effected after the date of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part is declared effective by the SEC;

 

   

through the writing or settlement of options or other hedging transactions, whether through an options exchange or otherwise;

 

   

in market transactions, including transactions on a national securities exchange or quotations service or over-the-counter market;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

broker-dealers who may agree with the selling shareholder to sell a specified number of such securities at a stipulated price per ADS or ordinary share; or

 

   

a combination of any such methods of sale.

The selling shareholder may, from time to time, pledge or grant a security interest in some securities owned by it and, if a selling shareholder defaults in the performance of its secured obligations, the pledgees or secured parties may offer and sell such securities, from time to time, under this prospectus, or under an amendment or supplement to this prospectus amending the list of the selling shareholders to include the pledgee, transferee, or other successors-in-interest as the selling shareholder under this prospectus. The selling shareholder also may transfer securities in other circumstances, in which case the transferees, pledgees, or other successors-in-interest will be the selling beneficial owners for purposes of this prospectus.

In connection with the sale of securities or interests therein, the selling shareholder may enter into hedging transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions, which may in turn engage in short sales of such securities in the course of hedging the positions they assume. The selling shareholder may also sell securities short and deliver these securities to close out their short positions, or loan or pledge securities to broker-dealers that in turn may sell these securities. The selling shareholder may also enter into option or other transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions or the creation of one or more derivative securities that require the delivery to such broker-dealer or other financial institution of ADSs offered by this prospectus, which ADSs such broker-dealer or other financial institution may resell pursuant to this prospectus (as supplemented or amended to reflect such transaction).

If underwriters are used in the sale of any securities, the securities may be offered either to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or directly by underwriters. Generally, the underwriters’ obligations to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions precedent. If an offering is on a firm-commitment basis, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities if they purchase any of the securities.

 

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Underwriters may engage in stabilizing and syndicate covering transactions in accordance with Rule 104 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Rule 104 of Regulation M permits stabilizing bids to purchase the securities being offered as long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Underwriters may over-allot the offered securities in connection with the offering, thus creating a short position in their account. Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the offered securities by underwriters in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions. Stabilizing and syndicate covering transactions may cause the price of the offered securities to be higher than it would otherwise be in the absence of these transactions. These transactions, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

If indicated in an applicable prospectus supplement, we or the selling shareholder may sell securities through agents from time to time. The applicable prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities and any commissions that we or any selling shareholders pay to them. Generally, any agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment. We or any selling shareholder may authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit offers by certain purchasers to purchase securities at the public offering price set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The delayed delivery contracts will be subject only to those conditions set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, and the applicable prospectus supplement will set forth any commissions we or any selling shareholders pay for solicitation of these delayed delivery contracts.

The selling shareholder may be deemed to be an underwriter as defined in the Securities Act. In addition, the agents, underwriters and other third parties described above that participate in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters. Agents, underwriters and other third parties described above may be entitled to indemnification by us and by any selling shareholder against certain civil liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribution with respect to payments which the agents or underwriters may be required to make in respect thereof. Agents, underwriters and such other third parties may be customers of, engage in transactions with, or perform services for us or the selling shareholder in the ordinary course of business.

We or the selling shareholder may sell the offered shares to one or more purchasers directly, in which case no underwriters or agents would be involved.

Our ADSs are currently listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “ACHL.” The other securities that may be offered under this prospectus and the related prospectus supplement may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. Shares of our ADSs issued and sold by us under this prospectus will be listed on the NASDAQ Global Select market upon official notice of issuance. Any underwriters to whom shares of our ADSs are sold by us for public offering and sale may make a market in the securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice.

The aggregate proceeds to the selling shareholder from the sale of ADSs offered by it will be the purchase price of such securities, less discounts or commissions, if any. The selling shareholder reserves the right to accept and, together with their agents from time to time, to reject, in whole or in part, any proposed purchase of ADSs to be made directly or through agents. We will not receive any of the proceeds from any offering by the selling shareholder.

The selling shareholder also may in the future resell a portion of the ADSs in open-market transactions in reliance upon Rule 144 under the Securities Act (provided that they meet the criteria and conform to the requirements of that rule), or pursuant to other available exemptions from the registration requirements of the Securities Act.

Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement with the selling shareholder, we have agreed to indemnify in certain circumstances the selling shareholder against certain liabilities, including certain liabilities under the Securities Act. The selling shareholder has agreed to indemnify us in certain circumstances against certain liabilities, including certain liabilities under the Securities Act. The selling shareholder may indemnify any

 

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underwriter or broker-dealer that participates in transactions involving the sale of ordinary shares against certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

We have agreed to maintain the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part until all such securities have been sold under such registration statement or under Rule 144 under the Securities Act or are no longer outstanding, or under other circumstances as described in the Registration Rights Agreement. We have agreed to pay all expenses in connection with this offering, other than underwriting fees, discounts, selling commissions, stock transfer taxes, and certain legal expenses. The selling shareholder will pay, on a pro rata basis, any underwriting fees, discounts, selling commissions, stock transfer taxes, and certain legal expenses relating to the offering.

We are required to pay all fees and expenses incident to the registration of ADSs to be offered and sold pursuant to this prospectus.

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

There can be no assurance that we or the selling shareholder will sell all or any of the securities offered by this prospectus.

 

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TAXATION

U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

Our most recent Annual Report on Form 20-F, as updated by other reports and documents we file with the SEC after the date of this prospectus and that are incorporated by reference herein, provides a discussion of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations that may be relevant to prospective investors in our ordinary shares. The applicable prospectus supplement may also contain information about any material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the securities covered by such prospectus supplement.

Non-U.S. Tax Considerations

Our most recent Annual Report on Form 20-F, as updated by other reports and documents we file with the SEC after the date of this prospectus and that are incorporated by reference herein, provides a discussion of the material UK tax consequences that may be relevant to prospective investors in our ordinary shares. The applicable prospectus supplement may also contain information about any non-U.S. tax considerations relating to the securities covered by such prospectus supplement.

 

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ENFORCEABILITY OF CERTAIN CIVIL LIABILITIES

We are incorporated and currently existing under the laws of England and Wales. In addition, certain of our directors and officers reside outside of the United States and most of the assets of our non-U.S. subsidiaries are located outside of the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process on us or those persons in the United States or to enforce in the United States judgments obtained in United States courts against us or those persons based on the civil liability or other provisions of the United States securities laws or other laws.

In addition, uncertainty exists as to whether the courts of England and Wales would:

 

   

recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liabilities provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States; or

 

   

entertain original actions brought in England and Wales against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

We have been advised by Goodwin Procter LLP that there is currently no treaty between: (i) the United States; and (ii) England and Wales providing for reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of United States courts in civil and commercial matters (although the United States and the UK are both parties to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards) and that a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any general or state court in the United States based on civil liability, whether or not predicated solely upon the United States securities laws, would not be automatically enforceable in England and Wales. We have also been advised by Goodwin Procter LLP that any final and conclusive monetary judgment for a definite sum obtained against us in United States courts would be treated by the courts of England and Wales as a cause of action in itself and sued upon as a debt at common law so that no retrial of the issues would be necessary, provided that:

 

   

the relevant U.S. court had jurisdiction over the original proceedings according to English conflicts of laws principles at the time when proceedings were initiated;

 

   

the courts of England and Wales had jurisdiction over the matter on enforcement and we either submitted to such jurisdiction or were resident or carrying on business within such jurisdiction and were duly served with process;

 

   

the U.S. judgment was final and conclusive on the merits in the sense of being final and unalterable in the court that pronounced it and being for a definite sum of money;

 

   

the judgment given by the courts was not in respect of penalties, taxes, fines or similar fiscal or revenue obligations (or otherwise based on a U.S. law that the courts of England and Wales consider to relate to a penal, revenue or other public law);

 

   

the judgment was not procured by fraud;

 

   

recognition or enforcement of the judgment in England and Wales would not be contrary to public policy or the Human Rights Act 1998;

 

   

the proceedings pursuant to which judgment was obtained were not contrary to natural justice;

 

   

the U.S. judgment was not arrived at by doubling, trebling or otherwise multiplying a sum assessed as compensation for the loss or damages sustained and not being otherwise in breach of Section 5 of the UK Protection of Trading Interests Act 1980, or is a judgment based on measures designated by the Secretary of State under Section 1 of that Act;

 

   

there is not a prior decision of the courts of England and Wales or the court of another jurisdiction on the issues in question between the same parties; and

 

   

the English enforcement proceedings were commenced within the limitation period.

 

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Whether these requirements are met in respect of a judgment based upon the civil liability provisions of the United States securities laws, including whether the award of monetary damages under such laws would constitute a penalty, is an issue for the court making such decision.

Subject to the foregoing, investors may be able to enforce in England and Wales judgments in civil and commercial matters that have been obtained from U.S. federal or state courts. Nevertheless, we cannot assure you that those judgments will be recognized or enforceable in England and Wales.

If the courts of England and Wales give a judgment for the sum payable under a U.S. judgment, the English judgment will be enforceable by methods generally available for this purpose. These methods generally permit the courts of England and Wales discretion to prescribe the manner of enforcement. In addition, it may not be possible to obtain an English judgment or to enforce that judgment if the judgment debtor is or becomes subject to any insolvency or similar proceedings, or if the judgment debtor has any set-off or counterclaim against the judgment creditor. Also note that, in any enforcement proceedings, the judgment debtor may raise any counterclaim that could have been brought if the action had been originally brought in England unless the subject of the counterclaim was in issue and denied in the U.S. proceedings. It should also be noted that in the courts system of England and Wales the usual rule is that the losing party is ordered to pay the legal costs of the litigation that were incurred by the successful party. These costs are assessed by the courts of England and Wales at the conclusion of the litigation.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of our ordinary shares and certain other matters of U.S. federal law and English law will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP and Goodwin Procter (UK) LLP, respectively.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Achilles Therapeutics plc as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed a registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, covering the securities offered hereby. As allowed by SEC rules, this prospectus does not include all of the information contained in the registration statement. You are referred to the registration statement and the included exhibits for further information. This prospectus is qualified in its entirety by such other information.

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act applicable to foreign private issuers and file annual and other information with the SEC. You can read our SEC filings, including the registration statement, over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file with the SEC at its Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the public reference facility. Additionally, we make these filings available, free of charge, on our website at www.achillestx.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such materials with, or furnish them to, the SEC.

Information Provided by Us

We will furnish holders of our ordinary shares with annual reports containing audited consolidated financial statements and a report by our independent registered public accounting firm. The audited consolidated financial statements will be prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or U.S. GAAP, as issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB . As a “foreign private issuer,” we are exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements to shareholders. While we intend to furnish proxy statements to shareholders, those proxy statements are not expected to conform to Schedule 14A of the proxy rules promulgated under the Exchange Act. In addition, as a “foreign private issuer,” we are exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act relating to short swing profit reporting and liability.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information we file with it, which means that:

 

   

incorporated documents are considered part of this prospectus;

 

   

we can disclose important information to you by referring to those documents; and

 

   

information that we file with the SEC in the future and incorporate by reference herein will automatically update and supersede information in this prospectus and information previously incorporated by reference herein.

The information that we incorporate by reference is an important part of this prospectus.

Each document incorporated by reference is current only as of the date of such document, and the incorporation by reference of such documents shall not create any implication that there has been no change in our affairs since the date thereof or that the information contained therein is current as of any time subsequent to its date. Any statement contained in such incorporated documents shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for the purpose of this prospectus to the extent that a subsequent statement contained in another document we incorporate by reference at a later date modifies or supersedes that statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

We incorporate herein by reference:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021;

 

   

our reports on Form 6-K furnished to the SEC on May 4, 2022, June 28, 2022, August 9, 2022 and November 8, 2022;

 

   

the description of ordinary shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on March 29, 2021 (File No. 001-40299), including any subsequent amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

   

any document filed in the future with the SEC under Sections 13(a) and 13(c) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and until this offering is completed. Any report on Form 6-K that we furnish to the SEC on or after the date of this prospectus (or portions thereof) is incorporated by reference in this prospectus only to the extent that the report expressly states that we incorporate it (or such portions) by reference in this prospectus and that it is not subsequently superseded.

You may also request a copy of documents incorporated by reference at no cost, by contacting us orally or in writing at the following address and telephone number: 245 Hammersmith Road, London, W6 8PW, United Kingdom, Attention: Company Secretary; our telephone number is +44 (0)20 8154 4600.

You also may access these filings on our website at www.achillestx.com. We do not incorporate the information on our website into this prospectus or any supplement to this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

Our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021 and any other information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus. The information in this prospectus and any supplement to this prospectus, to the extent applicable, automatically updates and supersedes the information in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021.

You should rely only on the information that we incorporate by reference or provide in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement(s). We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of those documents.

 

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$200,000,000

 

LOGO

Ordinary Shares

Ordinary Shares in the Form of American Depositary Shares

Warrants

Units

Debt Securities

and

5,543,454 Ordinary Shares in the Form of American Depositary Shares

Offered by the Selling Shareholder

Prospectus

            , 2022


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 8. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Subject to the Companies Act 2006, members of the registrant’s board of directors and its officers (excluding auditors) have the benefit of the following indemnification provisions in our articles of association:

Current and former members of the registrant’s board of directors or officers shall be:

 

i.

indemnified against any loss or liability which has been or may be incurred by them in connection with their duties or powers in relation to us, any associated company (as defined in the Companies Act 2006) or any pension fund or employee share scheme of ours or associated company and in relation to our (or associated company’s) activities as trustee of an occupational pension scheme, including any liability incurred in defending any civil or criminal proceedings in which judgment is given in his or her favor or in which he or she is acquitted or the proceedings are otherwise disposed of without any finding or admission of any material breach of duty on his or her part or in connection with any application in which the court grants him or her, in his or her capacity as a relevant officer, relief from liability for negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to our (or associated company’s) affairs; and

 

ii.

provided with funds to meet expenses incurred or to be incurred in defending any criminal or civil proceedings or application referred to above.

In the case of current or former members of the registrant’s board of directors, in compliance with the Companies Act 2006, there shall be no entitlement to reimbursement as referred to above for: (i) any liability incurred to the registrant or any associated company; (ii) the payment of a fine imposed in any criminal proceeding or a penalty imposed by a regulatory authority for non-compliance with any requirement of a regulatory nature; (iii) the defense of any criminal proceeding if the member of the registrant’s board of directors is convicted; (iv) the defense of any civil proceeding brought by the registrant or an associated company in which judgment is given against the director; and (v) any application for relief under the statutes of the UK and any other statutes that concern and affect the registrant as a company in which the court refuses to grant relief to the director.

In addition, members of the registrant’s board of directors and its officers who have received payment from the registrant under these indemnification provisions must repay the amount they received in accordance with the Companies Act 2006 or in any other circumstances that the registrant may prescribe or where the registrant has reserved the right to require repayment.

The board of directors may decide to purchase and maintain insurance, at our expense, for the benefit of any relevant officer in respect of any relevant loss.

Item 9. Exhibits

A list of exhibits filed with this registration statement is set forth on the Exhibit Index and is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 10. Undertakings

 

(a)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

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  (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of a prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement.

 

  (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.

Provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

  (2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

To file a post-effective amendment to the registration statement to include any financial statements required by Item 8.A. of Form 20-F at the start of any delayed offering or throughout a continuous offering. Financial statements and information otherwise required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933 need not be furnished, provided that the registrant includes in the prospectus, by means of a post-effective amendment, financial statements required pursuant to this paragraph (a)(4) and other information necessary to ensure that all other information in the prospectus is at least as current as the date of those financial statements. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a post-effective amendment need not be filed to include financial statements and information required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933 if such financial statements and information are contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement;

 

          (5)

(i)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

  (A)

Each prospectus filed by a registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (B)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the

 

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  registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which the prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date;

 

  (6)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(h)

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933, and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(j)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under section 305(b)2 of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit
Number
  

Description

1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement.
4.1    Articles of Association, as amended, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1.1 to the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 20-F (File No. 001-40299) filed with the SEC on March 1, 2022.
4.2    Deposit Agreement and Form of American Depositary Receipt, incorporated by reference to Exhibits 2.1 and 2.2 to the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 20-F (File No. 001-40299) filed with the SEC on March 1, 2022.
4.4*    Form of Warrant Agreement (including Warrant Certificate).
4.5*    Form of Unit Agreement.
4.6    Form of Senior Indenture.
4.7    Form of Subordinated Indenture.
5.1    Opinion of Goodwin Procter (UK) LLP.
5.2    Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP.
23.1    Consent of KPMG LLP.
23.2    Consent of Goodwin Procter (UK) LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).
23.3    Consent of Goodwin Procter LLP (included in Exhibit 5.2).
24.1    Powers of Attorney (included on signature page).
25.1**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
25.2**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
107    Filing Fee Table.

 

*

To be filed, if necessary, as an exhibit to a post-effective amendment to this registration statement or as an exhibit to a report filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference.

**

To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form F-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in London, United Kingdom, on November 8, 2022.

 

ACHILLES THERAPEUTICS PLC
By:   /s/ Iraj Ali
 

Iraj Ali, Ph.D.

 

Chief Executive Officer

 

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POWER OF ATTORNEY

NOW ALL BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Iraj Ali, Ph.D. and Daniel Hood, and each of them, as our true and lawful attorneys with full power to any of them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below the Registration Statement on Form F-3 filed herewith and any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to said Registration Statement, and any registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, in connection with said Registration Statement, and to file or cause to be filed the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in our name and on our behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Achilles Therapeutics plc to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys, and each of them, or their substitute or substitutes, shall do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Name

  

Title

  

Date

/s/ Iraj Ali

     
Iraj Ali, Ph.D.    Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
   November 8, 2022

/s/ Robert Coutts

     
Robert Coutts   

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

   November 8, 2022

/s/ Edwin Moses

     

Edwin Moses, Ph.D.

   Director    November 8, 2022

/s/ Carsten Boess

     
Carsten Boess    Director    November 8, 2022

/s/ Bernhard Ehmer

     
Bernhard Ehmer, M.D.    Director    November 8, 2022

/s/ Michael F. Giordano

     
Michael F. Giordano, Ph.D.    Director    November 8, 2022

/s/ Julie O’Neill

     
Julie O’Neill    Director    November 8, 2022

 

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SIGNATURE OF AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE IN THE UNITED STATES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the undersigned, the duly authorized representative in the United States of the registrant has signed this registration statement, on November 8, 2022.

 

Cogency Global Inc.

By:

 

/s/ Colleen A. De Vries

  Name: Colleen A. De Vries
  Title: Sr. Vice President

 

II-7

EX-4.6

Exhibit 4.6

ACHILLES THERAPEUTICS PLC

FORM OF

SENIOR INDENTURE

Dated as of [            ], 20[    ]

[                    ]

Trustee

 

 


Table of Contents

 

            Page  

ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     1  

Section 1.01

     Definitions      1  

Section 1.02

     Other Definitions      5  

Section 1.03

     Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act      5  

Section 1.04

     Rules of Construction      6  

ARTICLE II THE SECURITIES

     6  

Section 2.01

     Issuable in Series      6  

Section 2.02

     Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities      6  

Section 2.03

     Execution and Authentication      8  

Section 2.04

     Registrar and Paying Agent      10  

Section 2.05

     Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust      10  

Section 2.06

     Securityholder Lists      10  

Section 2.07

     Transfer and Exchange      11  

Section 2.08

     Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities      11  

Section 2.09

     Outstanding Securities      12  

Section 2.10

     Treasury Securities      12  

Section 2.11

     Temporary Securities      13  

Section 2.12

     Cancellation      13  

Section 2.13

     Defaulted Interest      13  

Section 2.14

     Global Securities      13  

Section 2.15

     CUSIP Numbers      15  

ARTICLE III REDEMPTION

     16  

Section 3.01

     Notice to Trustee      16  

Section 3.02

     Selection of Securities to be Redeemed      16  

Section 3.03

     Notice of Redemption      16  

Section 3.04

     Effect of Notice of Redemption      17  

Section 3.05

     Deposit of Redemption Price      17  

Section 3.06

     Securities Redeemed in Part      17  

ARTICLE IV COVENANTS

     17  

Section 4.01

     Payment of Principal and Interest      17  

Section 4.02

     SEC Reports      18  

Section 4.03

     Compliance Certificate      18  

Section 4.04

     Stay, Extension and Usury Laws      19  

Section 4.05

     Corporate Existence      19  

Section 4.06

     Taxes      19  

Section 4.07

     Additional Interest Notice      19  

Section 4.08

     Further Instruments and Acts      19  

ARTICLE V SUCCESSORS

     20  

Section 5.01

     When Company May Merge, Etc      20  

Section 5.02

     Successor Corporation Substituted      20  

 

i


ARTICLE VI DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

     20  

Section 6.01

     Events of Default      20  

Section 6.02

     Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment      22  

Section 6.03

     Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee      23  

Section 6.04

     Trustee May File Proofs of Claim      24  

Section 6.05

     Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities      24  

Section 6.06

     Application of Money Collected      25  

Section 6.07

     Limitation on Suits      25  

Section 6.08

     Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest      25  

Section 6.09

     Restoration of Rights and Remedies      26  

Section 6.10

     Rights and Remedies Cumulative      26  

Section 6.11

     Delay or Omission Not Waiver      26  

Section 6.12

     Control by Holders      26  

Section 6.13

     Waiver of Past Defaults      26  

Section 6.14

     Undertaking for Costs      27  

ARTICLE VII TRUSTEE

     27  

Section 7.01

     Duties of Trustee      27  

Section 7.02

     Rights of Trustee      28  

Section 7.03

     Individual Rights of Trustee      29  

Section 7.04

     Trustee’s Disclaimer      29  

Section 7.05

     Notice of Defaults      29  

Section 7.06

     Reports by Trustee to Holders      30  

Section 7.07

     Compensation and Indemnity      30  

Section 7.08

     Replacement of Trustee      31  

Section 7.09

     Successor Trustee by Merger, etc      32  

Section 7.10

     Eligibility; Disqualification      32  

Section 7.11

     Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company      32  

ARTICLE VIII SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

     32  

Section 8.01

     Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture      32  

Section 8.02

     Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification      33  

Section 8.03

     Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series      34  

Section 8.04

     Covenant Defeasance      35  

Section 8.05

     Repayment to Company      36  

ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

     36  

Section 9.01

     Without Consent of Holders      36  

Section 9.02

     With Consent of Holders      37  

Section 9.03

     Limitations      37  

Section 9.04

     Compliance with Trust Indenture Act      38  

Section 9.05

     Revocation and Effect of Consents      39  

Section 9.06

     Notation on or Exchange of Securities      39  

Section 9.07

     Trustee Protected      39  

Section 9.08

     Effect of Supplemental Indenture      39  

ARTICLE X MISCELLANEOUS

     39  

 

ii


Section 10.01

     Trust Indenture Act Controls      39  

Section 10.02

     Notices      39  

Section 10.03

     Communication by Holders with Other Holders      40  

Section 10.04

     Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent      41  

Section 10.05

     Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion      41  

Section 10.06

     Record Date for Vote or Consent of Holders      41  

Section 10.07

     Rules by Trustee and Agents      41  

Section 10.08

     Legal Holidays      42  

Section 10.09

     No Recourse Against Others      42  

Section 10.10

     Counterparts      42  

Section 10.11

     Governing Laws and Submission to Jurisdiction      42  

Section 10.12

     No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements      42  

Section 10.13

     Successors      43  

Section 10.14

     Severability      43  

Section 10.15

     Table of Contents, Headings, Etc      43  

Section 10.16

     Securities in a Foreign Currency or in ECU      43  

Section 10.17

     Judgment Currency      44  

Section 10.18

     Compliance with Applicable Anti-Terrorism and Money Laundering Regulations      44  

ARTICLE XI SINKING FUNDS

     44  

Section 11.01

     Applicability of Article      44  

Section 11.02

     Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities      45  

Section 11.03

     Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund      45  

 

iii


Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Indenture,

Dated as of [            ], 20[    ]

 

Section 310(a)(1)

   7.10

(a)(2)

   7.10

(a)(3)

   Not Applicable

(a)(4)

   Not Applicable

(a)(5)

   7.10

(b)

   7.10

(c)

   Not Applicable

Section 311(a)

   7.11

(b)

   7.11

(c)

   Not Applicable

Section 312(a)

   2.06

(b)

   10.03

(c)

   10.03

Section 313(a)

   7.06

(b)(1)

   7.06

(b)(2)

   7.06

(c)(1)

   7.06

(d)

   7.06

Section 314(a)

   4.02, 10.05

(b)

   Not Applicable

(c)(1)

   10.04

(c)(2)

   10.04

(c)(3)

   Not Applicable

(d)

   Not Applicable

(e)

   10.05

(f)

   Not Applicable

Section 315(a)

   7.01

(b)

   7.05

(c)

   7.01

(d)

   7.01

(e)

   6.14

Section 316(a)(1)(A)

   6.12

(a)(1)(B)

   6.13

(a)(2)

   Not Applicable

(b)

   6.13

 

iv


(c)

   10.06

Section 317(a)(1)

   6.03

(a)(2)

   6.04

(b)

   2.05

Section 318(a)

   10.01

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

v


Indenture dated as of [            ], 20[    ] between Achilles Therapeutics plc, a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales with registered number 13027460 (the “Company”) and [                    ] (the “Trustee”).

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.01    Definitions.

Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified therein and which are owing to such Holders.

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

Agent” means any Registrar or Paying Agent.

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11 of the United States Code (or any successor thereto) or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means any day other than a (x) Saturday, (y) Sunday or (z) day on which state or federally chartered banking institutions in New York, New York are not required to be open.

Capital Stock” of any Person means any and all shares, interests, rights to purchase, warrants, options, participations or other equivalents of or interests in (however designated) equity of such Person, but excluding any debt securities convertible into such equity.

Certificated Securities” means Securities in the form of physical, certificated Securities in registered form.

 

1


Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and thereafter means the successor.

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.

Company Request” means a written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chairman of the Board, a President or a Vice President, and by its Chief Financial Officer, its Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, and delivered to the Trustee.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered which office at the date of the execution of this Indenture is [                    ], Attention: [                    ], or at such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time.

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

Default” or “default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

Default Rate” means the default rate of interest specified in the Securities.

Depository” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depository for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depository” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depository with respect to the Securities of such Series.

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

Dollars” means the currency of The United States of America.

ECU” means the European Currency Unit as determined by the Commission of the European Union.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

Foreign Government Obligations” means with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or

 

2


caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) or (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.02 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee.

Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered.

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended and supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

Interest,” in respect of the Securities, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest payable on the Securities, including any additional interest that may become payable pursuant to Section 6.02(b).

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or installment of principal thereof, means the date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect repayment or otherwise.

Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer, the Secretary, any Assistant Treasurer or any Assistant Secretary of the Company.

Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is, and which opinion is, acceptable to the Trustee and its counsel. Such legal counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company or the Trustee.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

Principal” or “principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office and also means, any vice president, managing director, director, associate, assistant vice president, or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

 

3


SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

Security” or “Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02 hereof.

Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

Subordinated Indebtedness” means any indebtedness which is expressly subordinated to the indebtedness evidenced by Securities.

Subsidiary” means, in respect of any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Sections 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are (i) direct obligations of The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii)obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of The United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by The United States of America, and which in the case of (i) and (ii) are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S.

 

4


Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

Section 1.02    Other Definitions.

 

TERM    DEFINED IN
SECTION

“Applicable Law”

   10.18

“Event of Default”

   6.01

“Instrument”

   6.01

“Journal”

   10.16

“Judgment Currency”

   10.17

“Legal Holiday”

   10.08

“mandatory sinking fund payment”

   11.01

“Market Exchange Rate”

   10.16

“New York Banking Day”

   10.17

“optional sinking fund payment”

   11.01

“Paying Agent”

   2.04

“Registrar”

   2.04

“Required Currency”

   10.17

“successor person”

   5.01

“Temporary Securities”

   2.11

Section 1.03    Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act. Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. This Indenture shall also include those provisions of the TIA required to be included herein by the provisions of the Trust Indenture Reform Act of 1990. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

indenture securities” means the Securities.

indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

5


All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

Section 1.04    Rules of Construction. Unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) a term has the meaning assigned to it;

(b) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

(c) references to “generally accepted accounting principles” shall mean generally accepted accounting principles in effect as of the time when and for the period as to which such accounting principles are to be applied;

(d) “or” is not exclusive;

(e) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;

(f) provisions apply to successive events and transactions;

(g) references to agreements and other instruments include subsequent amendments thereto;

(h) the term “merger” includes a statutory share exchange, and the term “merged” has a correlative meaning; and

(i) “herein,” “hereof” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

ARTICLE II

THE SECURITIES

Section 2.01    Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined.

Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

Section 2.02    Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities. At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in

 

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the case of Subsection (a), and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections (b) through (t) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:

(a) the title, designation, aggregate principal amount and authorized denominations of the Securities of the Series;

(b) the price or prices, (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

(c) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

(d) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

(e) any optional or mandatory sinking fund provisions or conversion or exchangeability provisions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed, purchased, converted or exchanged;

(f) the date, if any, after which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series may be optionally redeemed or must be mandatorily redeemed and any other terms and provisions of optional or mandatory provisions;

(g) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

(h) if other than the full principal amount, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration pursuant to Section 6.02 or provable in bankruptcy;

(i) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.02;

(j) the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which payments of principal of, premium or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, if other than the currency of the United States of America;

(k) if payments of principal of, premium or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, at the Company’s election or at the election of any Holder, in a currency other than that in which the Securities of the Series are stated to be payable, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, the election may be made;

 

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(l) if payments of interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, at the Company’s election or at the election of any Holder, in cash or additional securities, and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

(m) if denominated in a currency or currencies other than the currency of the United States of America, the equivalent price of the Securities of the Series in the currency of the United States of America for purposes of determining the voting rights of Holders of the Securities of the Series;

(n) if the amount of payments of principal, premium or interest may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method based on a coin or currency other than that in which the Securities of the Series are stated to be payable, the manner in which the amounts will be determined;

(o) any restrictive covenants or other material terms relating to the Securities of the Series;

(p) whether the Securities of the Series will be issued in the form of global securities or certificates in registered form;

(q) any terms with respect to subordination;

(r) any listing on any securities exchange or quotation system;

(s) additional provisions, if any, related to defeasance and discharge of the offered debt securities; and

(t) the applicability of any guarantees, which would be governed by New York law.

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, and the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuance of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental Indenture or Officers’ Certificate.

Section 2.03    Execution and Authentication.

Two Officers shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

 

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The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication unless otherwise provided by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02, except as provided in Section 2.08.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.02) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.04, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.04.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if a Responsible Officer of the Trustee in good faith shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate.

If any successor that has replaced the Company in accordance with Article 5 has executed an indenture supplemental hereto with the Trustee pursuant to Section 5.01, any of the Securities authenticated or delivered prior to such transaction may, from time to time, at the request of such successor, be exchanged for other Securities executed in the name of the such successor with such changes in phraseology and form as may be appropriate, but otherwise identical to the Securities surrendered for such exchange and of like principal amount; and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Order of such successor, shall authenticate and deliver Securities as specified in such order for the purpose of such exchange. If Securities shall at any time be authenticated and delivered in any new name of such successor pursuant to this provision of Section 2.03 in exchange or substitution for or upon registration of transfer of any Securities, such successor, at the option of the Holders but without expense to them, shall provide for the exchange of all Securities then outstanding for Securities authenticated and delivered in such new name.

 

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Section 2.04    Registrar and Paying Agent.

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.02, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”) and where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar and Paying Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar or Paying Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations and surrenders may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations and surrenders.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars or additional paying agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.02 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar or additional paying agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; and the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent.

The Company hereby appoints [                    ] as the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each Series unless another Registrar or Paying Agent as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued. Each Registrar and Paying Agent shall be entitled to all of the rights, protections, exculpations and indemnities afforded to the Trustee in connection with its roles as Registrar and Paying Agent.

Section 2.05    Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust. The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent.

Section 2.06    Securityholder Lists. The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA Section 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least [                    ] days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

 

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Section 2.07    Transfer and Exchange.

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. Any exchange or transfer shall be without charge, except that the Company or the Registrar may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge required by law; provided that this sentence shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to Section 2.11, 2.08, 3.06 or 9.06.

Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business [                    ] days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange. Any Registrar appointed pursuant to Section 2.04 shall provide to the Trustee such information as the Trustee may reasonably require in connection with the delivery by such Registrar of Securities upon transfer or exchange of Securities. Each Holder of a Security agrees to indemnify the Company and the Trustee against any liability that may result from the transfer, exchange or assignment of such Holder’s Security in violation of any provision of this Indenture and/or applicable U.S. federal or state securities law.

Section 2.08    Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Registrar, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Registrar (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Registrar that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon its request the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

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In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

Every new Security of any series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

Section 2.09    Outstanding Securities.

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.08, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary or an Affiliate of any thereof) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

Section 2.10    Treasury Securities. In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver Securities of a Series owned by the Company or an Affiliate

 

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shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

Section 2.11    Temporary Securities. Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary securities upon a Company Order (“Temporary Securities”). Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon written request shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

Section 2.12    Cancellation.

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee or its agent any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange, payment or conversion. The Trustee and no one else shall cancel, in accordance with its standard procedures, all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, conversion or cancellation and shall deliver the cancelled Securities to the Company. No Security shall be authenticated in exchange for any Security cancelled pursuant to this Section 2.12.

The Company may, to the extent permitted by law, purchase Securities in the open market or by tender offer at any price or by private agreement. Any Securities purchased or otherwise acquired by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries prior to the final maturity of such Securities may, to the extent permitted by law, be reissued or resold or may, at the option of the Company, be surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation. Any Securities surrendered for cancellation may not be reissued or resold and shall be promptly cancelled by the Trustee, and the Company may not hold or resell such Securities or issue any new Securities to replace any such Securities.

Section 2.13    Defaulted Interest. If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest at the Default Rate, to the persons who are Security holders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least [ ] days before the record date, the Company shall mail to the Trustee and the Paying Agent and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

Section 2.14    Global Securities.

(a) A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depository for such Global Security or Securities.

 

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(b) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.07 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.07 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depository for such Security or its nominee only if (A) such Depository notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or if at any time such Depository ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depository within 90 days of such event, (B) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable or (C) an Event of Default with respect to the Securities represented by such Global Security shall have happened and be continuing.

(i) Except as provided in this Section 2.14(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.

(ii) Securities issued in exchange for a Global Security or any portion thereof shall be issued in definitive, fully registered form, without interest coupons, shall have an aggregate principal amount equal to that of such Global Security or portion thereof to be so exchanged, shall be registered in such names and be in such authorized denominations as the Depository shall designate and shall bear the applicable legends provided for herein. Any Global Security to be exchanged in whole shall be surrendered by the Depository to the Trustee, as Registrar. With regard to any Global Security to be exchanged in part, either such Global Security shall be so surrendered for exchange or, if the Registrar is acting as custodian for the Depository or its nominee with respect to such Global Security, the principal amount thereof shall be reduced by an amount equal to the portion thereof to be so exchanged, by means of an appropriate adjustment made on the records of the Trustee. Upon any such surrender or adjustment, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver the Security issuable on such exchange to or upon the order of the Depository or an authorized representative thereof.

(iii) The registered Holder may grant proxies and otherwise authorize any Person, including participants in the Depository and persons that may hold interests through participants in the Depository, to take any action which a Holder is entitled to take under this Indenture or the Securities.

(iv) In the event of the occurrence of any of the events specified in 2.14(b)(i), the Company will promptly make available to the Trustee a reasonable supply of Certificated Securities in definitive, fully registered form, without interest coupons. If (A) an event described in Section 2.14(b)(i)(A) or (B) occurs and definitive Certificated Securities are not issued promptly to all beneficial owners or (B) the Registrar receives from a beneficial owner instructions to obtain definitive Certificated Securities due to an event described in Section 2.14(b)(i)(C) and definitive Certificated Securities are not

 

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issued promptly to any such beneficial owner, the Company expressly acknowledges, with respect to the right of any Holder to pursue a remedy pursuant to Section 6.07 hereof, the right of any beneficial owner of Securities to pursue such remedy with respect to the portion of the Global Security that represents such beneficial owner’s Securities as if such definitive certificated Securities had been issued.

(v) Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary in this Indenture, so long as a Global Security remains outstanding and is held by or on behalf of the Depository, transfers of a Global Security, in whole or in part, or of any beneficial interest therein, shall only be made in accordance with Section 2.07, this Section 2.14(b) and the rules and procedures of the Depository for such Global Security to the extent applicable to such transaction and as in effect from time to time.

(c) Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.”

(d) The Depository, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

(e) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.02, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof at their registered office.

(f) At all times the Securities are held in book-entry form with a Depository, (i) the Trustee may deal with such Depository as the authorized representative of the Holders, (ii) the rights of the Holders shall be exercised only through the Depository and shall be limited to those established by law and agreement between the Holders and the Depository and/or direct participants of the Depository, (iii) the Depository will make book-entry transfers among the direct participants of the Depository and will receive and transmit distributions of principal and interest on the Securities to such direct participants; and (iv) the direct participants of the Depository shall have no rights under this Indenture, or any supplement hereto, under or with respect to any of the Securities held on their behalf by the Depository, and the Depository may be treated by the Trustee and its agents, employees, officers and directors as the absolute owner of the Securities for all purposes whatsoever.

Section 2.15    CUSIP Numbers. The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP”, “CCN”, “ISIN” or other identification numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so,

 

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the Trustee shall use “CUSIP”, “CCN”, “ISIN” or such other identification numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.

ARTICLE III

REDEMPTION

Section 3.01    Notice to Trustee. The Company may, with respect to any series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee and Registrar in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Company shall give the notice at least [                    ] days before the redemption date (or such shorter notice as may be acceptable to the Trustee and Registrar).

Section 3.02    Selection of Securities to be Redeemed. Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Registrar shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in accordance with its customary procedures. The Registrar shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. The Registrar may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of the Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of the Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.02(g), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

Section 3.03    Notice of Redemption. Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, at least [                    ] days but not more than [                    ] days before a redemption date, the Company shall mail a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.

The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

(a) the redemption date;

(b) the redemption price;

(c) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

(d) that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

 

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(e) that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date; and

(f) any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

At the Company’s written request, the Trustee shall distribute the notice of redemption prepared by the Company in the Company’s name and at its expense.

Section 3.04 Effect of Notice of Redemption. Once notice of redemption is mailed or published as provided in Section 3.03, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. A notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date.

Section 3.05 Deposit of Redemption Price. On or before the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

Section 3.06 Securities Redeemed in Part. Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

ARTICLE IV

COVENANTS

Section 4.01 Payment of Principal and Interest. The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture.

Unless otherwise provided under the terms of a particular Series of Securities:

(a) an installment of principal or interest shall be considered paid on the date it is due if the Paying Agent (other than the Company) holds by [                    ] [a].m., New York City time, on that date money, deposited by the Company or an Affiliate thereof, sufficient to pay such installment. The Company shall (in immediately available funds), to the fullest extent permitted by law, pay interest on overdue principal and overdue installments of interest at the rate borne by the Securities per annum; and

(b) payment of the principal of and interest on the Securities shall be made at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in [                    ] (which shall initially be [                    ], the Paying Agent) in such coin or currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts; provided, however, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address appears in the register; provided, further, that a Holder with an aggregate principal amount in excess of $[        ] will be paid by wire transfer in immediately available funds at the election of such Holder if such Holder has provided wire transfer instructions to the Company at least [                    ] Business Days prior to the payment date.

 

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Section 4.02 SEC Reports.

So long as any Securities are outstanding, the Company shall (i) file with the SEC within the time periods prescribed by its rules and regulations and (ii) furnish to the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities within [    ] days after the date on which the Company would be required to file the same with the SEC pursuant to its rules and regulations (giving effect to any grace period provided by Rule 12b-25 under the Exchange Act), all quarterly and annual financial information required to be furnished or filed with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 and Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and, with respect to the annual consolidated financial statements only, a report thereon by the Company’s independent auditors. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a).

Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only, and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates). The Company shall not be required to file any report or other information with the SEC if the SEC does not permit such filing, although such reports shall be furnished to the Trustee. Documents filed by the Company with the SEC via the SEC’s EDGAR system (or any successor thereto) will be deemed furnished to the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities as of the time such documents are filed via EDGAR (or such successor).

Section 4.03 Compliance Certificate.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within [    ] days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an officers certificate signed by two of the Company’s officers stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which he may have knowledge in reasonable detail and the efforts to remedy the same). For purposes of this Section 4.03, compliance shall be determined without regard to any grace period or requirement of notice provided pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within [    ] days after the occurrence thereof, written notice in the form of an Officers’ Certificate of any Event of Default described in Section 6.01(e), (f), (g) or (h) and any event of which it becomes aware that with the giving of notice or the lapse of time would become such an Event of Default, its status and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto. For the avoidance of doubt, a breach

 

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of a covenant under an Instrument that is not a payment default and that has not given rise to a right of acceleration under such Instrument shall not trigger the requirement to provide notice under this paragraph.

Section 4.04 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws. The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

Section 4.05 Corporate Existence. Subject to Article V, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence and the corporate, partnership or other existence of each Subsidiary in accordance with the respective organizational documents of each Subsidiary and the rights (charter and statutory), licenses and franchises of the Company and its Subsidiaries; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise, or the corporate, partnership or other existence of any Subsidiary, if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

Section 4.06 Taxes. The Company shall, and shall cause each of its Subsidiaries to, pay prior to delinquency all taxes, assessments and governmental levies, except as contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings.

Section 4.07 Additional Interest Notice. In the event that the Company is required to pay additional interest to Holders of Securities pursuant to Section 6.02(b) hereof, the Company shall provide a direction or order in the form of a written notice to the Trustee (and if the Trustee is not the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent) of the Company’s obligation to pay such additional interest no later than [    ] Business Days prior to date on which any such additional interest is scheduled to be paid. Such notice shall set forth the amount of additional interest to be paid by the Company on such payment date and direct the Trustee (or, if the Trustee is not the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent) to make payment to the extent it receives funds from the Company to do so. The Trustee shall not at any time be under any duty or responsibility to any Holder to determine whether additional interest is payable, or with respect to the nature, extent, or calculation of the amount of additional interest owed, or with respect to the method employed in such calculation of additional interest.

Section 4.08 Further Instruments and Acts. The Company will execute and deliver such further instruments and do such further acts as may be reasonably necessary or proper to carry out more effectively the purposes of this Indenture.

 

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ARTICLE V

SUCCESSORS

Section 5.01    When Company May Merge, Etc. The Company shall not consolidate with, enter into a binding share exchange, or merge into any other Person in a transaction in which it is not the surviving entity, or sell, assign, convey, transfer or lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties and assets to any Person (a “successor person”), unless:

(a)    the successor person (if any) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of the Kingdom of Belgium, [    ], the United States, any state of the United States or the District of Columbia and expressly assumes by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of, and any interest on, all Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Company to be performed or observed;

(b)    immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

(c)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee, prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction, an Officers’ Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and such supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

Section 5.02    Successor Corporation Substituted. Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.01, the successor person formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor company in the case of a sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company shall not be released from the obligation to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities.

ARTICLE VI

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

Section 6.01    Events of Default. “Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

(a)    default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to the expiration of such period of 30 days); or

 

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(b)    default in the payment of any principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or

(c)    default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, when and as due in respect of any Security of that Series; or

(d)    the Company fails to perform or comply with any of its other covenants or agreements contained in the Securities or in this Indenture (other than a covenant or agreement a default in whose performance or whose breach is specifically dealt with in clauses (a), (b) or (c) of this Section 6.01) and the default continues for 60 days after notice is given as specified below;

(e)    any indebtedness under any bond, debenture, note or other evidence of indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary or under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any indebtedness for money borrowed by, or any other payment obligation of, the Company or any Subsidiary (an “Instrument”) with a principal amount then, individually or in the aggregate, outstanding in excess of $[    ], whether such indebtedness now exists or shall hereafter be created, is not paid at Maturity or when otherwise due or is accelerated, and such indebtedness is not discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration is not cured or rescinded, within a period of 30 days after there shall have been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least [    ]% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default and requiring the Company to cause such indebtedness to be discharged or cause such default to be cured or waived or such acceleration to be rescinded or annulled and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder. A payment obligation (other than indebtedness under any bond, debenture, note or other evidence of indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary or under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary) shall not be deemed to have matured, come due, or been accelerated to the extent that it is being disputed by the relevant obligor or obligors in good faith. For the avoidance of doubt, the Maturity of an Instrument is the Maturity as set forth in that Instrument, as it may be amended from time to time in accordance with the terms of that Instrument;

(f)    the Company or any Subsidiary fails to pay one or more final and non-appealable judgments entered by a court or courts of competent jurisdiction, the aggregate uninsured or unbonded portion of which is in excess of $[    ], if the judgments are not paid, discharged, waived or stayed within [    ] days;

(g)    the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company, pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

(i)    commences a voluntary case or proceeding;

(ii)    consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case or proceeding;

 

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(iii)    consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property; or

(iv)    makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

(v)    or generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

(h)    a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

(i)    is for relief against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries in an involuntary case or proceeding;

(ii)    appoints a Custodian of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries for all or substantially all of the property of the Company or any such Subsidiary; or

(iii)    orders the liquidation of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries;

and the case of each of clause (i), (ii) and (iii), the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for [    ] consecutive days; or

(iv)    any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.02(i).

A default under clause (d) above is not an Event of Default until the Trustee notifies the Company, or the Holders of at least [    ]% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding notify the Company and the Trustee, in writing of the default, and the Company does not cure the default within 60 days after receipt of such notice. The notice given pursuant to this Section 6.01 must specify the default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default.” When any default under this Section 6.01 is cured, it ceases.

The Trustee shall not be charged with knowledge of any Event of Default unless written notice thereof shall have been given to a Trust Officer at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee by the Company, a Paying Agent, any Holder or any agent of any Holder.

Section 6.02    Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

(a)    If an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (g) or (h) of Section 6.01) occurs and is continuing with respect to any Securities of any Series, then in every such case, the Trustee may, by notice to the Company, or the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) then outstanding may, by notice to the Company and the Trustee, declare all unpaid principal of, and accrued and unpaid interest on to the date of acceleration, the Securities of that Series then outstanding (if not then due and payable) to be due and payable upon any such declaration, and the same shall become and be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (g) or (h) of Section 6.01 occurs, all unpaid principal of

 

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the Securities then outstanding, and all accrued and unpaid interest thereon to the date of acceleration, shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series then outstanding by notice to the Trustee may rescind an acceleration of such Securities of that Series and its consequences if (a) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of the principal of the Securities which has become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived; (b) to the extent the payment of such interest is lawful, interest (calculated at the Default Rate) on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal, which has become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration, has been paid; (c) the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree of a court of competent jurisdiction; and (d) all payments due to the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee under Section 7.07 have been made. No such rescission shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereto.

(b)    Notwithstanding any of provision of this Article 6, at the election of the Company in its sole discretion, the sole remedy under this Indenture for an Event of Default relating to the failure to comply with Section 4.02, and for any failure to comply with the requirements of Section 314(a)(1) of the TIA, will consist, for the 180 days after the occurrence of such an Event of Default, exclusively of the right to receive additional interest on the Securities at a rate equal to 0.50% per annum of the aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding up to, but not including, the 181st day thereafter (or, if applicable, the earlier date on which the Event of Default relating to Section 4.02 is cured or waived). Any such additional interest will be payable in the same manner and on the same dates as the stated interest payable on the Securities. In no event shall additional interest accrue under the terms of this Indenture at a rate in excess of 0.50% per annum, in the aggregate, for any violation or default caused by the failure of the Company to be current in respect of its Exchange Act reporting obligations. If the Event of Default is continuing on the 181st day after an Event of Default relating to a failure to comply with Section 4.02, the Securities will be subject to acceleration as provided in this Section 6.02. The provisions of this Section 6.02(b) will not affect the rights of Holders in the event of the occurrence of any other Events of Default.

In order to elect to pay additional interest as the sole remedy during the first 180 days after the occurrence of an Event of Default relating to the failure to comply with Section 4.02 in accordance with the immediately preceding paragraph, the Company shall notify all Holders and the Trustee and Paying Agent of such election on or before the close of business on the fifth Business Day after the date on which such Event of Default otherwise would occur. Upon a failure by the Company to timely give such notice or pay additional interest, the Securities will be immediately subject to acceleration as otherwise provided in this Section 6.02.

Section 6.03    Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

 

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If an Event of Default in the payment of principal, interest, if any, specified in clause (a) or (b) of Section 6.01 occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company or another obligor on the Securities for the whole amount of principal, and accrued interest remaining unpaid, if any, together with, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue principal, on overdue installments of interest, if any, in each case at the Default Rate, and such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

Section 6.04    Trustee May File Proofs of Claim. In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

(a)    to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

(b)    to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same, and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.05    Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities. All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

 

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Section 6.06    Application of Money Collected. Any money collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid: and

First: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07;

Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

Third: To the Company.

Section 6.07    Limitation on Suits. No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture or the Securities or any related coupon, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder (except actions for payment of overdue principal and interest), unless:

(a)    such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

(b)    the Holders of not less than [    ]% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

(c)    such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request;

(d)    the Trustee for [    ] days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

(e)    no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such [    ]-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series; it being understood and intended that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders.

Section 6.08    Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Stated Maturity or Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

 

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Section 6.09    Restoration of Rights and Remedies. If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

Section 6.10    Rights and Remedies Cumulative. Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.08, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

Section 6.11    Delay or Omission Not Waiver. No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

Section 6.12    Control by Holders. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that

(a)    such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,

(b)    the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction; and

(c)    subject to the provisions of Section 6.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability or would be unduly prejudicial to the rights of another Holder or the Trustee.

Section 6.13    Waiver of Past Defaults. Subject to Section 9.02, the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its

 

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consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration). Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.14    Undertaking for Costs. All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than [    ]% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Stated Maturity or Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

ARTICLE VII

TRUSTEE

Section 7.01    Duties of Trustee.

(a)    If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

(b)    Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

(i)    The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no implied duties, covenants or obligations shall be deemed to be imposed upon the Trustee.

(ii)    in the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officers’ Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officers’ Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officers’ Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform on their face to the requirements of this Indenture.

(c)    The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or willful misconduct, except that:

 

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(i)    This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of Section 7.01 herein.

(ii)    The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer.

(iii)    The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series.

(d)    Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraph (a), (b) and (c) of this Section.

(e)    The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives an indemnity satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense.

(f)    The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

(g)    No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk or expend its own funds or otherwise incur liability, financial or otherwise, in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or indemnity satisfactory to it against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

(h)    The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the same rights, indemnities, protections and immunities afforded to the Trustee.

(i)    The Trustee shall have no duty to monitor the performance or compliance of the Company with its obligations hereunder or any under supplement hereto, nor shall it have any liability in connection with the malfeasance or nonfeasance by the Company. The Trustee shall have no liability in connection with compliance by the Company with statutory or regulatory requirements related to this Indenture, any supplement or any Securities issued pursuant hereto or thereto.

Section 7.02    Rights of Trustee.

(a)    The Trustee may conclusively rely on and shall be fully protected in acting or refraining from acting as a result of its reasonable belief that any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, direction, approval or other paper or document was genuine and had been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it sees fit.

 

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(b)    Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officers’ Certificate or Opinion of Counsel.

(c)    The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of, or for the supervision of, any agent appointed with due care. No Depository shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depository.

(d)    The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers.

(e)    The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon.

(f)    The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by or pursuant to this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders of Securities, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

Section 7.03    Individual Rights of Trustee. The Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

Section 7.04    Trustee’s Disclaimer. The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities and the recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as statements of the Company and not of the Trustee, and the Trustee has no responsibility for such recitals. The Trustee shall not be accountable for the Company’s use or application of the proceeds from the Securities or for monies paid over to the Company pursuant to this Indenture, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.

Section 7.05    Notice of Defaults. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge or receives written notice of such event, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series, notice of a Default or Event of Default within [    ] days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, including any additional interest that may become payable pursuant to Section 6.02(b), the Trustee may withhold the notice so long as the Trustee in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.

 

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Section 7.06    Reports by Trustee to Holders.

Within [    ] days after [    ] in each year, the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such [    ], in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA Section 313.

A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each stock exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee when Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange.

Section 7.07    Compensation and Indemnity.

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time such compensation for its services as shall be agreed upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses, disbursements and advances incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents, counsel and other persons not regularly in its employ.

The Company shall indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Trustee and its officers, directors, employees, representatives and agents, from and against and reimburse the Trustee for any and all claims, expenses, obligations, liabilities, losses, damages, injuries (to person, property, or natural resources), penalties, stamp or other similar taxes, actions, suits, judgments, reasonable costs and expenses (including reasonable attorney’s and agent’s fees and expenses) of whatever kind or nature regardless of their merit, demanded, asserted or claimed against the Trustee directly or indirectly relating to, or arising from, claims against the Trustee by reason of its participation in the transactions contemplated hereby, including without limitation all reasonable costs required to be associated with claims for damages to persons or property, and reasonable attorneys’ and consultants’ fees and expenses and court costs except to the extent caused by the Trustee’s negligence or willful misconduct. The provisions of this Section 7.07 shall survive the termination of this Agreement or the earlier resignation or removal of the Trustee. The Company shall defend any claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld or delayed. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.

To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal and interest on particular Securities of that Series.

 

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When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(f) or (g) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

Section 7.08    Replacement of Trustee.

A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section.

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:

(a)    the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;

(b)    the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;

(c)    a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

(d)    the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company.

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within [    ] days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least [    ] % in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.07, and subject to the payment of any and all amounts then due and owing to the retiring Trustee, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee shall mail a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.08, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.07 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it prior to such replacement.

 

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Section 7.09    Successor Trustee by Merger, etc. If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee with the same effect as if the successor Trustee had been named as the Trustee herein.

Section 7.10    Eligibility; Disqualification. This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Section 310(a) (1), (2) and (5). The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b).

Section 7.11    Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company. The Trustee is subject to TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TTA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated.

ARTICLE VIII

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

Section 8.01    Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. This Indenture shall upon Company Order cease to be of further effect (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.01), and the Trustee, on the demand of and at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when

(a)    either

(i)    all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

(ii)    all such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation have become due and payable, or

(1)    have become due and payable, or

(2)    will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within [    ], or

(3)    are to be called for redemption within [    ] under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company, or

(4)    are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to Section 8.03, as applicable; and the Company, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, has deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable on or prior to the date of such deposit) or to the Stated Maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

 

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(b)    the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and

(c)    the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each meeting the applicable requirements of Sections 10.04 and 10.05 and each stating that all conditions precedent herein relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with and the Trustee receives written demand from the Company to discharge.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.07, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to clause (a) of this Section, the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 8.01 8.02 and 8.05 shall survive.

Section 8.02    Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

(a)    Subject to the provisions of Section 8.05, all money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.01, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.03 or 8.04.

(b)    The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee and the Agents against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.03 or 8.04 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.

(c)    The Trustee shall, in accordance with the terms of this Indenture, deliver or pay to the Company from time to time, upon Company Request and at the expense of the Company any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it pursuant to this Indenture as provided in Sections 8.03 or 8.04 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants, expressed in a written certification thereof and delivered to the Trustee together with such Company Request, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received. This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.

 

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Section 8.03    Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series. Unless this Section 8.03 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.02(s), to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of such Series on the [    ] day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect (and the Trustee, at the expense of the company, shall, at Company Request, execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), except as to:

(a)    the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in subparagraph (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Stated Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;

(b)    the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 2.14, 8.02, 8.03 and 8.05; and

(c)    the rights, powers, trust and immunities of the Trustee hereunder; provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(d)    the Company shall have deposited or caused to be deposited irrevocably with the Paying Agent as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars (or such other money or currencies as shall then be legal tender in the United States) and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof, in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Paying Agent), not later than [    ] day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee and the Paying Agent, to pay and discharge each installment of principal (including mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments) of and interest, if any, on all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal are due;

(e)    such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

(f)    no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the [    ] day after such date;

(g)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has

 

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been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

(h)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the Holders of the Securities of such Series over any other creditors of the company or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company;

(i)    such deposit shall not result in the trust arising from such deposit constituting an investment company (as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended), or such trust shall be qualified under such Act or exempt from regulation thereunder; and

(j)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

Section 8.04    Covenant Defeasance. Unless this Section 8.04 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.02(s) to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, on and after the [    ] day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (a) hereof, the Company may omit to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.02, 4.03, 4.04, 4.05, 4.06, and 5.01 as well as any additional covenants contained in a supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02(s) (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default under Section 6.01) and the occurrence of any event described in clause (e) of Section 6.01 shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(a)    With reference to this Section 8.04, the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.02(c)) with the Paying Agent as trust funds in trust, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars (or such other money or currencies as shall then be legal tender in the United States) and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof, in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Paying Agent), not later than [    ] day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Paying Agent, to pay principal and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund in respect of the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal are due;

 

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(b)    Such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

(c)    No Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the [    ] day after such date;

(d)    the company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel confirming that Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and defeasance had not occurred;

(e)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the Holders of the Securities of such Series over any other creditors of the Company or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

(f)    The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

Section 8.05    Repayment to Company. The Paying Agent shall pay to the Company upon request any money held by them for the payment of principal and interest that remains unclaimed for two years. After that, Securityholders entitled to the money must look to the Company for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person and all liability of the Paying Agent with respect to that money shall cease.

ARTICLE IX

AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

Section 9.01    Without Consent of Holders. Subject to Section 9.02 and Section 9.03, the Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Securityholder:

(a)    to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

(b)    to comply with Article V;

(c)    to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

 

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(d)    to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

(e)    to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture;

(f)    to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee;

(g)    to comply with requirements of the TIA and any rules promulgated under the TIA; and

(h)    to add to the covenants of the Company for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders or to surrender any right, power or option conferred upon the Company.

Any amendment or supplement made solely to conform the provisions of this Indenture or the Securities of any Series to the description thereof contained in the final prospectus relating to such Series will be deemed not to adversely affect the rights of any Holder.

Section 9.02    With Consent of Holders.

Subject to Section 9.03, the Company and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of all Series affected by such supplemental indenture, taken together as one class (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Securityholders of each such Series. Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of all Series affected by such waiver by notice to the Trustee, taken together as one class (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.02 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof. After a supplemental indenture or waiver under this section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to the Holders of Securities affected thereby a notice briefly describing the supplemental indenture or waiver. Any failure by the Company to mail or publish such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

Section 9.03    Limitations. Without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:

 

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(a)    change the amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver, except to increase any such amount or to provide that certain provisions of this Indenture cannot be modified, amended or waived without the consent of the Holder of each outstanding Security affected thereby;

(b)    reduce the amount of interest, or change the interest payment time, on any Security;

(c)    waive a redemption payment or alter the redemption provisions (other than any alteration that would not materially adversely affect the legal rights of any Holder under this Indenture) or the price at which the Company is required to offer to purchase the Securities;

(d)    reduce the principal or change the Stated Maturity of any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

(e)    reduce the principal amount payable of any Security upon Maturity;

(f)    waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

(g)    change the place or currency of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on any Security other than that stated in the Security;

(h)    impair the right of any Holder to receive payment of principal or, or interest on, the Securities of such Holder on or after the due dates therefor;

(i)    impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on, or with respect to, any Security;

(j)    make any change in Sections 10.15 or 10.16;

(k)    change the ranking of the Securities; or

(l)    make any other change which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate as a limitation under this Section.

For the avoidance of doubt, any amendment or waiver shall always be subject to the consent of the Company.

Section 9.04    Compliance with Trust Indenture Act. Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the TIA as then in effect.

 

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Section 9.05    Revocation and Effect of Consents.

Until an amendment or waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security. However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the amendment or waiver becomes effective.

Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Securityholder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (a) through (g) of Section 9.03 in that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security.

Section 9.06    Notation on or Exchange of Securities. If an amendment, supplement or waiver changes the terms of a Security, the Trustee may require the Holder of the Security to deliver it to the Trustee and the Trustee may place an appropriate notation on the Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder. Alternatively, if the Company or the Trustee so determines, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon request new Securities of that Series that reflect the changed terms.

Section 9.07    Trustee Protected. In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel or an Officer’s Certificate, or both stating that the execution of such supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that adversely affects its rights, duties or indemnities.

Section 9.08    Effect of Supplemental Indenture. Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture under this Article, this Indenture shall be modified in accordance therewith, and each such supplemental indenture shall form part of this Indenture for all purposes with respect to the relevant Series; and every Holder of Securities of the relevant Series theretofore or thereafter authenticated and delivered hereunder shall be bound thereby.

ARTICLE X

MISCELLANEOUS

Section 10.01    Trust Indenture Act Controls. If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, such required or deemed provision shall control.

Section 10.02    Notices. Any notice or communication by the Company, the Trustee, the Paying Agent or the Registrar to another is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or mailed by first-class mail:

 

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if to the Company:

[    ]

Attn: [    ]

Fax: [    ]

if to the Trustee:

[    ]

Attn: [    ]

Fax: [    ]

if to the Registrar or Paying Agent:

[    ]

Attn: [    ]

Fax: [    ]

with copy to:

[    ]

Attn: [    ]

Fax: [    ]

The Company, the Trustee and each Agent by notice to each other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be mailed by first-class mail to his address shown on the register kept by the Registrar. Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Securityholder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders of that or any other Series.

If a notice or communication is mailed or published in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Securityholder receives it.

If the company mails a notice or communication to Securityholders, it will mail a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

Whenever a notice is required to be given by the Company, such notice may be given by the Trustee or Registrar on the Company’s behalf (and the Company will make any notice it is required to give to Holders available on its website).

Section 10.03    Communication by Holders with Other Holders. Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).

 

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Section 10.04    Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent. Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

(a)    an Officers’ Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

(b)    an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of counsel, all such conditions precedent (including any covenants, compliance with which constitutes a condition precedent) have been complied with.

Section 10.05    Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion. Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA Section 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of TIA Section 314(e) and shall include:

(a)    a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

(b)    a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(c)    a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(d)    a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

provided, however, that with respect to matters of fact an Opinion of Counsel may rely on an Officers’ Certificate or certificates of public officials.

Section 10.06    Record Date for Vote or Consent of Holders. The Company (or, in the event deposits have been made pursuant to Section 11.02, the Trustee) may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders entitled to vote or consent to any action by vote or consent authorized or permitted under this Indenture, which record date shall not be more than [    ] days prior to the date of the commencement of solicitation of such action. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 9.05, if a record date is fixed, those persons who were Holders of Securities at the close of business on such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those persons, shall be entitled to take such action by vote or consent or to revoke any vote or consent previously given, whether or not such persons continue to be Holders after such record date.

Section 10.07    Rules by Trustee and Agents. The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Securityholders of one or more Series. Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.

 

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Section 10.08    Legal Holidays. Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular Series, a “Legal Holiday” is any day that is not a Business Day. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.

Section 10.09    No Recourse Against Others. A director, officer, employee or stockholder, as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

Section 10.10    Counterparts. This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement.

Section 10.11    Governing Laws and Submission to Jurisdiction.

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK EXCLUDING ANY RULE OF LAW THAT WOULD CAUSE THE APPLICATION OF THE LAWS OF ANY JURISDICTION OTHER THAN THE STATE OF NEW YORK.

The Company agrees that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Indenture may be instituted in any federal or state court sitting in New York City, and, to the fullest extent permitted by law, waives any objection which it may now or hereafter have to the laying of venue of any such proceeding, and irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such court in any suit, action or proceeding. The Company, as long as any Securities remain outstanding or the parties hereto have any obligation under this Indenture, shall have an authorized agent in the United States upon whom process may be served in any such legal action or proceeding. Service of process upon such agent and written notice of such service mailed or delivered to it shall to the extent permitted by law be deemed in every respect effective service of process upon it in any such legal action or proceeding and, if it fails to maintain such agent, any such process or summons may be served by mailing a copy thereof by registered mail, or a form of mail substantially equivalent thereto, addressed to it at its address as provided for notices hereunder. The Company hereby appoints [                    ], as its agent for such purposes, and covenants and agrees that service of process in any legal action or proceeding may be made upon it at such office of such agent.

Section 10.12    No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements. This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or a Subsidiary. Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

 

42


Section 10.13    Successors. All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successor. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.

Section 10.14    Severability. In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

Section 10.15    Table of Contents, Headings, Etc. The Table of Contents, Cross Reference Table, and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

Section 10.16    Securities in a Foreign Currency or in ECU.

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in a coin or currency other than Dollars (including ECUs), then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be that amount of Dollars that could be obtained for such amount at the Market Exchange Rate at such time. For purposes of this Section 10.16, “Market Exchange Rate” shall mean the noon Dollar buying rate in New York City for cable transfers of that currency as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; provided, however, in the case of ECUs, Market Exchange Rate shall mean the rate of exchange determined by the Commission of the European Union (or any successor thereto) as published in the Official Journal of the European Union (such publication or any successor publication, the “Journal”). If such Market Exchange Rate is not available for any reason with respect to such currency, the Trustee shall use, without liability on its part, such quotation of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or, in the case of ECUs, the rate of exchange as published in the Journal, as of the most recent available date, or quotations or, in the case of ECUs, rates of exchange from one or more major banks in The City of New York or in the country of issue of the currency in question or, in the case of ECUs, in Luxembourg or such other quotations or, in the case of ECUs, rates of exchange as the Trustee, upon consultation with the Company, shall deem appropriate. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

All decisions and determinations of the Trustee regarding the Market Exchange Rate or any alternative determination provided for in the preceding paragraph shall be in its sole discretion and shall, in the absence of manifest error, be conclusive to the extent permitted by law for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Company and all Holders.

 

43


Section 10.17    Judgment Currency.

The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of or interest or other amount on the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a New York Banking Day, then, the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the New York

Banking Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable, and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture. For purposes of the foregoing, “New York Banking Day” means any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

Section 10.18    Compliance with Applicable Anti-Terrorism and Money Laundering Regulations. In order to comply with the laws, rules, regulations and executive orders in effect from time to time applicable to banking institutions, including those relating to the funding of terrorist activities and money laundering (“Applicable Law”), the Trustee is required to obtain, verify and record certain information relating to individuals and entities which maintain a business relationship with the Trustee. Accordingly, each of the parties agree to provide to the Trustee, upon its request from time to time such identifying information and documentation as may be available for such party in order to enable the Trustee to comply with the Applicable Law.

ARTICLE XI

SINKING FUNDS

Section 11.01    Applicability of Article.

The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of the Securities of a Series, except as otherwise permitted or required by any form of Security of such Series issued pursuant to this Indenture.

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any Series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment” and any other amount provided for by the terms of Securities of such Series is herein referred to as an

 

44


“optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any Series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 11.02. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any Series as provided for by the terms of the securities of such Series.

Section 11.02    Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities. The Company may, in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of any Series to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities (1) deliver outstanding Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable (other than any of such Securities previously called for mandatory sinking fund redemption) and (2) apply as credit Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable and which have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Series of Securities (except pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund) or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments or other optional redemptions pursuant to the terms of such Securities, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received by the Registrar, together with an Officers’ Certificate with respect thereto, not later than [    ] days prior to the date on which the Registrar begins the process of selecting Securities for redemption, and shall be credited for such purpose by the Registrar at the price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly. If as a result of the delivery or credit of Securities in lieu of cash payments pursuant to this Section 11.02, the principal amount of Securities of such Series to be redeemed in order to exhaust the aforesaid cash payment shall be less than $[    ], the Registrar need not call Securities of such Series for redemption, except upon receipt of a Company Order that such action be taken, and such cash payment shall be held by the Paying Agent and applied to the next succeeding sinking fund payment, provided, however, that the Paying Agent shall from time to time upon receipt of a Company Order pay over and deliver to the Company any cash payment so being held by the Paying Agent upon delivery by the Company to the Registrar of Securities of that Series purchased by the Company having an unpaid principal amount equal to the cash payment required to be released to the Company.

Section 11.03    Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund. Not less than [    ] days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate in respect of a particular Series of Securities) prior to each sinking fund payment date for any Series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee and the Paying Agent an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment for that Series pursuant to the terms of that Series, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting of Securities of that Series pursuant to Section 11.02., and the optional amount, if any, to be added in cash to the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment, and the Company shall thereupon be obligated to pay the amount therein specified. Not less than [    ] days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture in respect of a particular Series of Securities) before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.03. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall stated in Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06.

 

45


[The remainder of this page is intentionally left blank]

 

46


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

ACHILLES THERAPEUTICS PLC
By:                                                                            
  Name:
  Its:

[    ]

as Trustee

By:                                                                            
  Name:
  Its:
By:                                                                            
  Name:
  Its:

[    ]

as Registrar and Paying Agent

By:                                                                            
  Name:
  Its:
By:                                                                            
  Name:
  Its:

 

47

EX-4.7

Exhibit 4.7

ACHILLES THERAPEUTICS PLC

FORM OF

SUBORDINATED INDENTURE

Dated as of [            ], 20[    ]

[                    ]

Trustee


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

       Page  

ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     1  

Section 1.01

 

Definitions

     1  

Section 1.02

 

Other Definitions

     5  

Section 1.03

 

Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act

     5  

Section 1.04

 

Rules of Construction

     6  

ARTICLE II THE SECURITIES

     6  

Section 2.01

 

Issuable in Series

     6  

Section 2.02

 

Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities

     6  

Section 2.03

 

Execution and Authentication

     8  

Section 2.04

 

Registrar and Paying Agent

     10  

Section 2.05

 

Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust

     10  

Section 2.06

 

Securityholder Lists

     10  

Section 2.07

 

Transfer and Exchange

     11  

Section 2.08

 

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

     11  

Section 2.09

 

Outstanding Securities

     12  

Section 2.10

 

Treasury Securities

     12  

Section 2.11

 

Temporary Securities

     13  

Section 2.12

 

Cancellation

     13  

Section 2.13

 

Defaulted Interest

     13  

Section 2.14

 

Global Securities

     13  

Section 2.15

 

CUSIP Numbers

     15  

ARTICLE III REDEMPTION

     16  

Section 3.01

 

Notice to Trustee

     16  

Section 3.02

 

Selection of Securities to be Redeemed

     16  

Section 3.03

 

Notice of Redemption

     16  

Section 3.04

 

Effect of Notice of Redemption

     17  

Section 3.05

 

Deposit of Redemption Price

     17  

Section 3.06

 

Securities Redeemed in Part

     17  

ARTICLE IV COVENANTS

     17  

Section 4.01

 

Payment of Principal and Interest

     17  

Section 4.02

 

SEC Reports

     18  

Section 4.03

 

Compliance Certificate

     18  

Section 4.04

 

Stay, Extension and Usury Laws

     19  

Section 4.05

 

Corporate Existence

     19  

Section 4.06

 

Taxes

     19  

Section 4.07

 

Additional Interest Notice

     19  

Section 4.08

 

Further Instruments and Acts

     19  

ARTICLE V SUCCESSORS

     20  

Section 5.01

 

When Company May Merge, Etc

     20  

 

i


Section 5.02

 

Successor Corporation Substituted

     20  

ARTICLE VI DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

     20  

Section 6.01

 

Events of Default

     20  

Section 6.02

 

Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment

     22  

Section 6.03

 

Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee

     23  

Section 6.04

 

Trustee May File Proofs of Claim

     24  

Section 6.05

 

Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities

     24  

Section 6.06

 

Application of Money Collected

     25  

Section 6.07

 

Limitation on Suits

     25  

Section 6.08

 

Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest

     25  

Section 6.09

 

Restoration of Rights and Remedies

     26  

Section 6.10

 

Rights and Remedies Cumulative

     26  

Section 6.11

 

Delay or Omission Not Waiver

     26  

Section 6.12

 

Control by Holders

     26  

Section 6.13

 

Waiver of Past Defaults

     26  

Section 6.14

 

Undertaking for Costs

     27  

ARTICLE VII TRUSTEE

     27  

Section 7.01

 

Duties of Trustee

     27  

Section 7.02

 

Rights of Trustee

     29  

Section 7.03

 

Individual Rights of Trustee

     29  

Section 7.04

 

Trustee’s Disclaimer

     29  

Section 7.05

 

Notice of Defaults

     29  

Section 7.06

 

Reports by Trustee to Holders

     30  

Section 7.07

 

Compensation and Indemnity

     30  

Section 7.08

 

Replacement of Trustee

     31  

Section 7.09

 

Successor Trustee by Merger, etc

     32  

Section 7.10

 

Eligibility; Disqualification

     32  

Section 7.11

 

Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company

     32  

ARTICLE VIII SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

     32  

Section 8.01

 

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture

     32  

Section 8.02

 

Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification

     33  

Section 8.03

 

Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series

     34  

Section 8.04

 

Covenant Defeasance

     35  

Section 8.05

 

Repayment to Company

     36  

ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

     37  

Section 9.01

 

Without Consent of Holders

     37  

Section 9.02

 

With Consent of Holders

     37  

Section 9.03

 

Limitations

     38  

Section 9.04

 

Compliance with Trust Indenture Act

     39  

Section 9.05

 

Revocation and Effect of Consents

     39  

Section 9.06

 

Notation on or Exchange of Securities

     39  

Section 9.07

 

Trustee Protected

     39  

Section 9.08

 

Effect of Supplemental Indenture

     39  

 

ii


ARTICLE X MISCELLANEOUS

     40  

Section 10.01

 

Trust Indenture Act Controls

     40  

Section 10.02

 

Notices

     40  

Section 10.03

 

Communication by Holders with Other Holders

     41  

Section 10.04

 

Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent

     41  

Section 10.05

 

Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion

     41  

Section 10.06

 

Record Date for Vote or Consent of Holders

     42  

Section 10.07

 

Rules by Trustee and Agents

     42  

Section 10.08

 

Legal Holidays

     42  

Section 10.09

 

No Recourse Against Others

     42  

Section 10.10

 

Counterparts

     42  

Section 10.11

 

Governing Laws and Submission to Jurisdiction

     42  

Section 10.12

 

No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements

     43  

Section 10.13

 

Successors

     43  

Section 10.14

 

Severability

     43  

Section 10.15

 

Table of Contents, Headings, Etc

     43  

Section 10.16

 

Securities in a Foreign Currency or in ECU

     43  

Section 10.17

 

Judgment Currency

     44  

Section 10.18

 

Compliance with Applicable Anti-Terrorism and Money Laundering Regulations

     44  

ARTICLE XI SINKING FUNDS

     45  

Section 11.01

 

Applicability of Article

     45  

Section 11.02

 

Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities

     45  

Section 11.03

 

Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund

     45  

 

iii


Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Indenture,

Dated as of [            ], 20[    ]

 

Section 310(a)(1)

   7.10

(a)(2)

   7.10

(a)(3)

   Not Applicable

(a)(4)

   Not Applicable

(a)(5)

   7.10

(b)

   7.10

(c)

   Not Applicable

Section 311(a)

   7.11

(b)

   7.11

(c)

   Not Applicable

Section 312(a)

   2.06

(b)

   10.03

(c)

   10.03

Section 313(a)

   7.06

(b)(1)

   7.06

(b)(2)

   7.06

(c)(1)

   7.06

(d)

   7.06

Section 314(a)

   4.02, 10.05

(b)

   Not Applicable

(c)(1)

   10.04

(c)(2)

   10.04

(c)(3)

   Not Applicable

(d)

   Not Applicable

(e)

   10.05

(f)

   Not Applicable

Section 315(a)

   7.01

(b)

   7.05

(c)

   7.01

(d)

   7.01

(e)

   6.14

Section 316(a)(1)(A)

   6.12

(a)(1)(B)

   6.13

(a)(2)

   Not Applicable

(b)

   6.13

(c)

   10.06

Section 317(a)(1)

   6.03

(a)(2)

   6.04

 

iv


(b)

   2.05

Section 318(a)

   10.01

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

v


Indenture dated as of [            ], 20[    ] between Achilles Therapeutics plc, a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales with registered number 13027460 (the “Company”) and [    ] (the “Trustee”).

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.01    Definitions.

Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified therein and which are owing to such Holders.

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

Agent” means any Registrar or Paying Agent.

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11 of the United States Code (or any successor thereto) or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means any day other than a (x) Saturday, (y) Sunday or (z) day on which state or federally chartered banking institutions in New York, New York are not required to be open.

Capital Stock” of any Person means any and all shares, interests, rights to purchase, warrants, options, participations or other equivalents of or interests in (however designated) equity of such Person, but excluding any debt securities convertible into such equity.

Certificated Securities” means Securities in the form of physical, certificated Securities in registered form.

 

1


Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and thereafter means the successor.

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.

Company Request” means a written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chairman of the Board, a President or a Vice President, and by its Chief Financial Officer, its Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, and delivered to the Trustee.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered which office at the date of the execution of this Indenture is [    ], Attention: [    ], or at such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time.

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

Default” or “default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

Default Rate” means the default rate of interest specified in the Securities.

Depository” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depository for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depository” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depository with respect to the Securities of such Series.

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

Dollars” means the currency of The United States of America.

ECU” means the European Currency Unit as determined by the Commission of the European Union.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

Foreign Government Obligations” means with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is

 

2


pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) or (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.02 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee.

Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered.

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended and supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

Interest,” in respect of the Securities, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest payable on the Securities, including any additional interest that may become payable pursuant to Section 6.02(b).

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or installment of principal thereof, means the date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect repayment or otherwise.

Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer, the Secretary, any Assistant Treasurer or any Assistant Secretary of the Company.

Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is, and which opinion is, acceptable to the Trustee and its counsel. Such legal counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company or the Trustee.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

Principal” or “principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office and also means, any vice president, managing director, director, associate, assistant vice president, or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

 

3


SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

Security” or “Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02 hereof.

Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

Subordinated Indebtedness” means any indebtedness which is expressly subordinated to the indebtedness evidenced by Securities.

Subsidiary” means, in respect of any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Sections 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are (i) direct obligations of The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of The United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by The United States of America, and which in the case of (i) and (ii) are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided

 

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that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

Section 1.02    Other Definitions.

 

TERM    DEFINED IN
SECTION

Applicable Law

   10.18

Event of Default

   6.01

Instrument

   6.01

Journal

   10.16

Judgment Currency

   10.17

Legal Holiday

   10.08

mandatory sinking fund payment

   11.01

Market Exchange Rate

   10.16

New York Banking Day

   10.17

optional sinking fund payment

   11.01

Paying Agent

   2.04

Registrar

   2.04

Required Currency

   10.17

successor person

   5.01

Temporary Securities

   2.11

Section 1.03    Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act. Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. This Indenture shall also include those provisions of the TIA required to be included herein by the provisions of the Trust Indenture Reform Act of 1990. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

indenture securities” means the Securities.

indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

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All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

Section 1.04    Rules of Construction. Unless the context otherwise requires:

(a)    a term has the meaning assigned to it;

(b)    an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

(c)    references to “generally accepted accounting principles” shall mean generally accepted accounting principles in effect as of the time when and for the period as to which such accounting principles are to be applied;

(d)    “or” is not exclusive;

(e)    words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;

(f)    provisions apply to successive events and transactions;

(g)    references to agreements and other instruments include subsequent amendments thereto;

(h)    the term “merger” includes a statutory share exchange, and the term “merged” has a correlative meaning; and

(i)    “herein,” “hereof” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

ARTICLE II

THE SECURITIES

Section 2.01    Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

Section 2.02    Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities. At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection (a), and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series

 

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generally in the case of Subsections (b) through (t) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:

(a)    the title, designation, aggregate principal amount and authorized denominations of the Securities of the Series;

(b)    the price or prices, (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

(c)    the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

(d)    the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

(e)    any optional or mandatory sinking fund provisions or conversion or exchangeability provisions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed, purchased, converted or exchanged;

(f)    the date, if any, after which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series may be optionally redeemed or must be mandatorily redeemed and any other terms and provisions of optional or mandatory provisions;

(g)    if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

(h)    if other than the full principal amount, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration pursuant to Section 6.02 or provable in bankruptcy;

(i)    any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.02;

(j)    the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which payments of principal of, premium or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, if other than the currency of the United States of America;

(k)    if payments of principal of, premium or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, at the Company’s election or at the election of any Holder, in a currency other than that in which the Securities of the Series are stated to be payable, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, the election may be made;

 

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(l)    if payments of interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be payable, at the Company’s election or at the election of any Holder, in cash or additional securities, and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

(m)    if denominated in a currency or currencies other than the currency of the United States of America, the equivalent price of the Securities of the Series in the currency of the United States of America for purposes of determining the voting rights of Holders of the Securities of the Series;

(n)    if the amount of payments of principal, premium or interest may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method based on a coin or currency other than that in which the Securities of the Series are stated to be payable, the manner in which the amounts will be determined;

(o)    any restrictive covenants or other material terms relating to the Securities of the Series;

(p)    whether the Securities of the Series will be issued in the form of global securities or certificates in registered form;

(q)    any terms with respect to subordination;

(r)    any listing on any securities exchange or quotation system;

(s)    additional provisions, if any, related to defeasance and discharge of the offered debt securities; and

(t)    the applicability of any guarantees, which would be governed by New York law.

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, and the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuance of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental Indenture or Officers’ Certificate.

Section 2.03    Execution and Authentication.

Two Officers shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

 

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The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication unless otherwise provided by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02, except as provided in Section 2.08.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.02) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.04, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.04.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if a Responsible Officer of the Trustee in good faith shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate.

If any successor that has replaced the Company in accordance with Article V has executed an indenture supplemental hereto with the Trustee pursuant to Section 5.01, any of the Securities authenticated or delivered prior to such transaction may, from time to time, at the request of such successor, be exchanged for other Securities executed in the name of the such successor with such changes in phraseology and form as may be appropriate, but otherwise identical to the Securities surrendered for such exchange and of like principal amount; and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Order of such successor, shall authenticate and deliver Securities as specified in such order for the purpose of such exchange. If Securities shall at any time be authenticated and delivered in any new name of such successor pursuant to this provision of Section 2.03 in exchange or substitution for or upon registration of transfer of any Securities, such successor, at the option of the Holders but without expense to them, shall provide for the exchange of all Securities then outstanding for Securities authenticated and delivered in such new name.

 

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Section 2.04    Registrar and Paying Agent.

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.02, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”) and where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar and Paying Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar or Paying Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations and surrenders may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations and surrenders.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars or additional paying agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.02 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar or additional paying agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; and the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent.

The Company hereby appoints [    ] as the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each Series unless another Registrar or Paying Agent as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued. Each Registrar and Paying Agent shall be entitled to all of the rights, protections, exculpations and indemnities afforded to the Trustee in connection with its roles as Registrar and Paying Agent.

Section 2.05    Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust. The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent.

Section 2.06    Securityholder Lists. The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA Section 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least [    ] days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

 

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Section 2.07    Transfer and Exchange.

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. Any exchange or transfer shall be without charge, except that the Company or the Registrar may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge required by law; provided that this sentence shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to Section 2.11, 2.08, 3.06 or 9.06.

Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business [    ] days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange. Any Registrar appointed pursuant to Section 2.04 shall provide to the Trustee such information as the Trustee may reasonably require in connection with the delivery by such Registrar of Securities upon transfer or exchange of Securities. Each Holder of a Security agrees to indemnify the Company and the Trustee against any liability that may result from the transfer, exchange or assignment of such Holder’s Security in violation of any provision of this Indenture and/or applicable U.S. federal or state securities law.

Section 2.08    Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Registrar, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Registrar (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Registrar that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon its request the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

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In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

Every new Security of any series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

Section 2.09    Outstanding Securities.

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.08, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary or an Affiliate of any thereof) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

Section 2.10    Treasury Securities. In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver Securities of a Series owned by the Company or an Affiliate

 

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shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

Section 2.11    Temporary Securities. Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary securities upon a Company Order (“Temporary Securities”). Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon written request shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

Section 2.12    Cancellation.

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee or its agent any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange, payment or conversion. The Trustee and no one else shall cancel, in accordance with its standard procedures, all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, conversion or cancellation and shall deliver the cancelled Securities to the Company. No Security shall be authenticated in exchange for any Security cancelled pursuant to this Section 2.12.

The Company may, to the extent permitted by law, purchase Securities in the open market or by tender offer at any price or by private agreement. Any Securities purchased or otherwise acquired by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries prior to the final maturity of such Securities may, to the extent permitted by law, be reissued or resold or may, at the option of the Company, be surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation. Any Securities surrendered for cancellation may not be reissued or resold and shall be promptly cancelled by the Trustee, and the Company may not hold or resell such Securities or issue any new Securities to replace any such Securities.

Section 2.13    Defaulted Interest. If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest at the Default Rate, to the persons who are Security holders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least [    ] days before the record date, the Company shall mail to the Trustee and the Paying Agent and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

Section 2.14    Global Securities.

(a)    A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depository for such Global Security or Securities.

 

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(b)    (i) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.07 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.07 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depository for such Security or its nominee only if (A) such Depository notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or if at any time such Depository ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depository within 90 days of such event, (B) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable or (C) an Event of Default with respect to the Securities represented by such Global Security shall have happened and be continuing.

(ii)    Except as provided in this Section 2.14(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.

(iii)    Securities issued in exchange for a Global Security or any portion thereof shall be issued in definitive, fully registered form, without interest coupons, shall have an aggregate principal amount equal to that of such Global Security or portion thereof to be so exchanged, shall be registered in such names and be in such authorized denominations as the Depository shall designate and shall bear the applicable legends provided for herein. Any Global Security to be exchanged in whole shall be surrendered by the Depository to the Trustee, as Registrar. With regard to any Global Security to be exchanged in part, either such Global Security shall be so surrendered for exchange or, if the Registrar is acting as custodian for the Depository or its nominee with respect to such Global Security, the principal amount thereof shall be reduced by an amount equal to the portion thereof to be so exchanged, by means of an appropriate adjustment made on the records of the Trustee. Upon any such surrender or adjustment, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver the Security issuable on such exchange to or upon the order of the Depository or an authorized representative thereof.

(iv)    The registered Holder may grant proxies and otherwise authorize any Person, including participants in the Depository and persons that may hold interests through participants in the Depository, to take any action which a Holder is entitled to take under this Indenture or the Securities.

(v)    In the event of the occurrence of any of the events specified in 2.14(b)(i), the Company will promptly make available to the Trustee a reasonable supply of Certificated Securities in definitive, fully registered form, without interest coupons. If (A) an event described in Section 2.14(b)(i)(A) or (B) occurs and definitive Certificated Securities are not issued promptly to all beneficial owners or (B) the Registrar receives from a beneficial owner instructions to obtain definitive Certificated Securities due to an event described in Section 2.14(b)(i)(C) and definitive Certificated Securities are not

 

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issued promptly to any such beneficial owner, the Company expressly acknowledges, with respect to the right of any Holder to pursue a remedy pursuant to Section 6.07 hereof, the right of any beneficial owner of Securities to pursue such remedy with respect to the portion of the Global Security that represents such beneficial owner’s Securities as if such definitive certificated Securities had been issued.

(vi)    Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary in this Indenture, so long as a Global Security remains outstanding and is held by or on behalf of the Depository, transfers of a Global Security, in whole or in part, or of any beneficial interest therein, shall only be made in accordance with Section 2.07, this Section 2.14(b) and the rules and procedures of the Depository for such Global Security to the extent applicable to such transaction and as in effect from time to time.

(c)    Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.”

(d)    The Depository, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

(e)    Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.02, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof at their registered office.

(f)    At all times the Securities are held in book-entry form with a Depository, (i) the Trustee may deal with such Depository as the authorized representative of the Holders, (ii) the rights of the Holders shall be exercised only through the Depository and shall be limited to those established by law and agreement between the Holders and the Depository and/or direct participants of the Depository, (iii) the Depository will make book-entry transfers among the direct participants of the Depository and will receive and transmit distributions of principal and interest on the Securities to such direct participants; and (iv) the direct participants of the Depository shall have no rights under this Indenture, or any supplement hereto, under or with respect to any of the Securities held on their behalf by the Depository, and the Depository may be treated by the Trustee and its agents, employees, officers and directors as the absolute owner of the Securities for all purposes whatsoever.

Section 2.15    CUSIP Numbers. The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP”, “CCN”, “ISIN” or other identification numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so,

 

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the Trustee shall use “CUSIP”, “CCN”, “ISIN” or such other identification numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.

ARTICLE III

REDEMPTION

Section 3.01    Notice to Trustee. The Company may, with respect to any series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee and Registrar in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Company shall give the notice at least [    ] days before the redemption date (or such shorter notice as may be acceptable to the Trustee and Registrar).

Section 3.02    Selection of Securities to be Redeemed. Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Registrar shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in accordance with its customary procedures. The Registrar shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. The Registrar may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of the Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of the Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.02(g), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

Section 3.03    Notice of Redemption. Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, at least [    ] days but not more than [    ] days before a redemption date, the Company shall mail a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.

The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

(a)    the redemption date;

(b)    the redemption price;

(c)    the name and address of the Paying Agent;

(d)    that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

 

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(e)    that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date; and

(f)    any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

At the Company’s written request, the Trustee shall distribute the notice of redemption prepared by the Company in the Company’s name and at its expense.

Section 3.04    Effect of Notice of Redemption. Once notice of redemption is mailed or published as provided in Section 3.03, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. A notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date.

Section 3.05    Deposit of Redemption Price. On or before the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

Section 3.06    Securities Redeemed in Part. Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

ARTICLE IV

COVENANTS

Section 4.01    Payment of Principal and Interest. The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture.

Unless otherwise provided under the terms of a particular Series of Securities:

(a)    an installment of principal or interest shall be considered paid on the date it is due if the Paying Agent (other than the Company) holds by [    ] [a].m., New York City time, on that date money, deposited by the Company or an Affiliate thereof, sufficient to pay such installment. The Company shall (in immediately available funds), to the fullest extent permitted by law, pay interest on overdue principal and overdue installments of interest at the rate borne by the Securities per annum; and

(b)    payment of the principal of and interest on the Securities shall be made at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in [    ] (which shall initially be [    ], the Paying Agent) in such coin or currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts; provided, however, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address appears in the register; provided, further, that a Holder with an aggregate principal amount in excess of $[    ] will be paid by wire transfer in immediately available funds at the election of such Holder if such Holder has provided wire transfer instructions to the Company at least [    ] Business Days prior to the payment date.

 

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Section 4.02    SEC Reports.

So long as any Securities are outstanding, the Company shall (i) file with the SEC within the time periods prescribed by its rules and regulations and (ii) furnish to the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities within [    ] days after the date on which the Company would be required to file the same with the SEC pursuant to its rules and regulations (giving effect to any grace period provided by Rule 12b-25 under the Exchange Act), all quarterly and annual financial information required to be furnished or filed with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 and Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and, with respect to the annual consolidated financial statements only, a report thereon by the Company’s independent auditors. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a).

Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only, and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates). The Company shall not be required to file any report or other information with the SEC if the SEC does not permit such filing, although such reports shall be furnished to the Trustee. Documents filed by the Company with the SEC via the SEC’s EDGAR system (or any successor thereto) will be deemed furnished to the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities as of the time such documents are filed via EDGAR (or such successor).

Section 4.03    Compliance Certificate.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within [    ] days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an officers certificate signed by two of the Company’s officers stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which he may have knowledge in reasonable detail and the efforts to remedy the same). For purposes of this Section 4.03, compliance shall be determined without regard to any grace period or requirement of notice provided pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within [    ] days after the occurrence thereof, written notice in the form of an Officers’ Certificate of any Event of Default described in Section 6.01(e), (f), (g) or (h) and any event of which it becomes aware that with the giving of notice or the lapse of time would become such an Event of Default, its status and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto. For the avoidance of doubt, a breach

 

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of a covenant under an Instrument that is not a payment default and that has not given rise to a right of acceleration under such Instrument shall not trigger the requirement to provide notice under this paragraph.

Section 4.04    Stay, Extension and Usury Laws. The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

Section 4.05    Corporate Existence. Subject to Article V, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence and the corporate, partnership or other existence of each Subsidiary in accordance with the respective organizational documents of each Subsidiary and the rights (charter and statutory), licenses and franchises of the Company and its Subsidiaries; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise, or the corporate, partnership or other existence of any Subsidiary, if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

Section 4.06    Taxes. The Company shall, and shall cause each of its Subsidiaries to, pay prior to delinquency all taxes, assessments and governmental levies, except as contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings.

Section 4.07    Additional Interest Notice. In the event that the Company is required to pay additional interest to Holders of Securities pursuant to Section 6.02(b) hereof, the Company shall provide a direction or order in the form of a written notice to the Trustee (and if the Trustee is not the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent) of the Company’s obligation to pay such additional interest no later than [     ] Business Days prior to date on which any such additional interest is scheduled to be paid. Such notice shall set forth the amount of additional interest to be paid by the Company on such payment date and direct the Trustee (or, if the Trustee is not the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent) to make payment to the extent it receives funds from the Company to do so. The Trustee shall not at any time be under any duty or responsibility to any Holder to determine whether additional interest is payable, or with respect to the nature, extent, or calculation of the amount of additional interest owed, or with respect to the method employed in such calculation of additional interest.

Section 4.08    Further Instruments and Acts. The Company will execute and deliver such further instruments and do such further acts as may be reasonably necessary or proper to carry out more effectively the purposes of this Indenture.

 

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ARTICLE V

SUCCESSORS

Section 5.01    When Company May Merge, Etc. The Company shall not consolidate with, enter into a binding share exchange, or merge into any other Person in a transaction in which it is not the surviving entity, or sell, assign, convey, transfer or lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties and assets to any Person (a “successor person”), unless:

(a)    the successor person (if any) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of the Kingdom of Belgium, [    ], the United States, any state of the United States or the District of Columbia and expressly assumes by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of, and any interest on, all Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Company to be performed or observed;

(b)    immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

(c)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee, prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction, an Officers’ Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and such supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

Section 5.02    Successor Corporation Substituted. Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.01, the successor person formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor company in the case of a sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company shall not be released from the obligation to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities.

ARTICLE VI

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

Section 6.01    Events of Default.

Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

(a)    default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to the expiration of such period of 30 days); or

 

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(b)    default in the payment of any principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or

(c)    default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, when and as due in respect of any Security of that Series; or

(d)    the Company fails to perform or comply with any of its other covenants or agreements contained in the Securities or in this Indenture (other than a covenant or agreement a default in whose performance or whose breach is specifically dealt with in clauses (a), (b) or (c) of this Section 6.01) and the default continues for 60 days after notice is given as specified below;

(e)    any indebtedness under any bond, debenture, note or other evidence of indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary or under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any indebtedness for money borrowed by, or any other payment obligation of, the Company or any Subsidiary (an “Instrument”) with a principal amount then, individually or in the aggregate, outstanding in excess of $[    ], whether such indebtedness now exists or shall hereafter be created, is not paid at Maturity or when otherwise due or is accelerated, and such indebtedness is not discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration is not cured or rescinded, within a period of 30 days after there shall have been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least [    ]% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default and requiring the Company to cause such indebtedness to be discharged or cause such default to be cured or waived or such acceleration to be rescinded or annulled and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder. A payment obligation (other than indebtedness under any bond, debenture, note or other evidence of indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary or under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any Subsidiary) shall not be deemed to have matured, come due, or been accelerated to the extent that it is being disputed by the relevant obligor or obligors in good faith. For the avoidance of doubt, the Maturity of an Instrument is the Maturity as set forth in that Instrument, as it may be amended from time to time in accordance with the terms of that Instrument;

(f)    the Company or any Subsidiary fails to pay one or more final and non-appealable judgments entered by a court or courts of competent jurisdiction, the aggregate uninsured or unbonded portion of which is in excess of $[    ], if the judgments are not paid, discharged, waived or stayed within [    ] days;

(g)    the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company, pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

(i)    commences a voluntary case or proceeding;

 

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(ii)    consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case or proceeding;

(iii)    consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property; or

(iv)    makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

(v)    or generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

(h)    a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

(vi)    is for relief against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries in an involuntary case or proceeding;

(vii)    appoints a Custodian of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries for all or substantially all of the property of the Company or any such Subsidiary; or

(viii)    orders the liquidation of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries;

and the case of each of clause (i), (ii) and (iii), the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for [    ] consecutive days; or

(ix)    any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.02(i).

A default under clause (d) above is not an Event of Default until the Trustee notifies the Company, or the Holders of at least [    ]% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding notify the Company and the Trustee, in writing of the default, and the Company does not cure the default within 60 days after receipt of such notice. The notice given pursuant to this Section 6.01 must specify the default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default.” When any default under this Section 6.01 is cured, it ceases.

The Trustee shall not be charged with knowledge of any Event of Default unless written notice thereof shall have been given to a Trust Officer at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee by the Company, a Paying Agent, any Holder or any agent of any Holder.

Section 6.02    Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

(a)    If an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (g) or (h) of Section 6.01) occurs and is continuing with respect to any Securities of any Series, then in every such case, the Trustee may, by notice to the Company, or the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) then outstanding may, by notice to the Company and the Trustee, declare all unpaid principal of, and accrued and unpaid interest on to the date of acceleration, the

 

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Securities of that Series then outstanding (if not then due and payable) to be due and payable upon any such declaration, and the same shall become and be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (g) or (h) of Section 6.01 occurs, all unpaid principal of the Securities then outstanding, and all accrued and unpaid interest thereon to the date of acceleration, shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series then outstanding by notice to the Trustee may rescind an acceleration of such Securities of that Series and its consequences if (a) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of the principal of the Securities which has become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived; (b) to the extent the payment of such interest is lawful, interest (calculated at the Default Rate) on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal, which has become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration, has been paid; (c) the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree of a court of competent jurisdiction; and (d) all payments due to the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee under Section 7.07 have been made. No such rescission shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereto.

(b)    Notwithstanding any of provision of this Article VI, at the election of the Company in its sole discretion, the sole remedy under this Indenture for an Event of Default relating to the failure to comply with Section 4.02, and for any failure to comply with the requirements of Section 314(a)(1) of the TIA, will consist, for the 180 days after the occurrence of such an Event of Default, exclusively of the right to receive additional interest on the Securities at a rate equal to 0.50% per annum of the aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding up to, but not including, the 181st day thereafter (or, if applicable, the earlier date on which the Event of Default relating to Section 4.02 is cured or waived). Any such additional interest will be payable in the same manner and on the same dates as the stated interest payable on the Securities. In no event shall additional interest accrue under the terms of this Indenture at a rate in excess of 0.50% per annum, in the aggregate, for any violation or default caused by the failure of the Company to be current in respect of its Exchange Act reporting obligations. If the Event of Default is continuing on the 181st day after an Event of Default relating to a failure to comply with Section 4.02, the Securities will be subject to acceleration as provided in this Section 6.02. The provisions of this Section 6.02(b) will not affect the rights of Holders in the event of the occurrence of any other Events of Default.

In order to elect to pay additional interest as the sole remedy during the first 180 days after the occurrence of an Event of Default relating to the failure to comply with Section 4.02 in accordance with the immediately preceding paragraph, the Company shall notify all Holders and the Trustee and Paying Agent of such election on or before the close of business on the fifth Business Day after the date on which such Event of Default otherwise would occur. Upon a failure by the Company to timely give such notice or pay additional interest, the Securities will be immediately subject to acceleration as otherwise provided in this Section 6.02.

Section 6.03    Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the

 

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Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

If an Event of Default in the payment of principal, interest, if any, specified in clause (a) or (b) of Section 6.01 occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company or another obligor on the Securities for the whole amount of principal, and accrued interest remaining unpaid, if any, together with, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue principal, on overdue installments of interest, if any, in each case at the Default Rate, and such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

Section 6.04    Trustee May File Proofs of Claim. In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

(a)    to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

(b)    to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same, and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.05    Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities. All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision

 

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for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

Section 6.06    Application of Money Collected. Any money collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid: and

First: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07;

Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

Third: To the Company.

Section 6.07    Limitation on Suits. No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture or the Securities or any related coupon, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder (except actions for payment of overdue principal and interest), unless:

(a)    such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

(b)    the Holders of not less than [    ]% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

(c)    such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request;

(d)    the Trustee for [    ] days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

(e)    no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such [    ]-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series; it being understood and intended that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders.

Section 6.08    Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the

 

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right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Stated Maturity or Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

Section 6.09    Restoration of Rights and Remedies. If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

Section 6.10    Rights and Remedies Cumulative. Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.08, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

Section 6.11    Delay or Omission Not Waiver. No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

Section 6.12    Control by Holders. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that

(a)    such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,

(b)    the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction; and

(c)    subject to the provisions of Section 6.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability or would be unduly prejudicial to the rights of another Holder or the Trustee.

Section 6.13    Waiver of Past Defaults. Subject to Section 9.02, the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of

 

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the Holders of all the Securities of such Series waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration). Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.14    Undertaking for Costs. All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than [    ]% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Stated Maturity or Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

ARTICLE VII

TRUSTEE

Section 7.01    Duties of Trustee.

(a)    If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

(b)    Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

(i)    The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no implied duties, covenants or obligations shall be deemed to be imposed upon the Trustee.

(ii)    in the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officers’ Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officers’ Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officers’ Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform on their face to the requirements of this Indenture.

 

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(c)    The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or willful misconduct, except that:

(i)    This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of Section 7.01 herein.

(ii)    The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer.

(iii)    The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series.

(d)    Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraph (a), (b) and (c) of this Section.

(e)    The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives an indemnity satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense.

(f)    The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

(g)    No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk or expend its own funds or otherwise incur liability, financial or otherwise, in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or indemnity satisfactory to it against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

(h)    The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the same rights, indemnities, protections and immunities afforded to the Trustee.

(i)    The Trustee shall have no duty to monitor the performance or compliance of the Company with its obligations hereunder or any under supplement hereto, nor shall it have any liability in connection with the malfeasance or nonfeasance by the Company. The Trustee shall have no liability in connection with compliance by the Company with statutory or regulatory requirements related to this Indenture, any supplement or any Securities issued pursuant hereto or thereto.

 

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Section 7.02    Rights of Trustee.

(a)    The Trustee may conclusively rely on and shall be fully protected in acting or refraining from acting as a result of its reasonable belief that any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, direction, approval or other paper or document was genuine and had been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it sees fit.

(b)    Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officers’ Certificate or Opinion of Counsel.

(c)    The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of, or for the supervision of, any agent appointed with due care. No Depository shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depository.

(d)    The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers.

(e)    The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon.

(f)    The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by or pursuant to this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders of Securities, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

Section 7.03    Individual Rights of Trustee. The Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

Section 7.04    Trustee’s Disclaimer. The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities and the recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as statements of the Company and not of the Trustee, and the Trustee has no responsibility for such recitals. The Trustee shall not be accountable for the Company’s use or application of the proceeds from the Securities or for monies paid over to the Company pursuant to this Indenture, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.

Section 7.05    Notice of Defaults. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if a Responsible Officer of the Trustee

 

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has knowledge or receives written notice of such event, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series, notice of a Default or Event of Default within [    ] days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, including any additional interest that may become payable pursuant to Section 6.02(b), the Trustee may withhold the notice so long as the Trustee in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.

Section 7.06    Reports by Trustee to Holders.

Within [    ] days after [    ] in each year, the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such [    ], in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA Section 313.

A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each stock exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee when Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange.

Section 7.07    Compensation and Indemnity.

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time such compensation for its services as shall be agreed upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses, disbursements and advances incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents, counsel and other persons not regularly in its employ.

The Company shall indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Trustee and its officers, directors, employees, representatives and agents, from and against and reimburse the Trustee for any and all claims, expenses, obligations, liabilities, losses, damages, injuries (to person, property, or natural resources), penalties, stamp or other similar taxes, actions, suits, judgments, reasonable costs and expenses (including reasonable attorney’s and agent’s fees and expenses) of whatever kind or nature regardless of their merit, demanded, asserted or claimed against the Trustee directly or indirectly relating to, or arising from, claims against the Trustee by reason of its participation in the transactions contemplated hereby, including without limitation all reasonable costs required to be associated with claims for damages to persons or property, and reasonable attorneys’ and consultants’ fees and expenses and court costs except to the extent caused by the Trustee’s negligence or willful misconduct. The provisions of this Section 7.07 shall survive the termination of this Agreement or the earlier resignation or removal of the Trustee. The Company shall defend any claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld or delayed. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

 

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The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.

To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal and interest on particular Securities of that Series.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(f) or (g) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

Section 7.08    Replacement of Trustee.

A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section.

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:

(a)    the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;

(b)    the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;

(c)    a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

(d)    the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company.

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within [    ] days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least [    ]% in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all

 

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property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.07, and subject to the payment of any and all amounts then due and owing to the retiring Trustee, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee shall mail a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.08, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.07 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it prior to such replacement.

Section 7.09    Successor Trustee by Merger, etc. If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee with the same effect as if the successor Trustee had been named as the Trustee herein.

Section 7.10    Eligibility; Disqualification. This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(1), (2) and (5). The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b).

Section 7.11    Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company. The Trustee is subject to TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TTA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated.

ARTICLE VIII

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

Section 8.01    Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. This Indenture shall upon Company Order cease to be of further effect (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.01), and the Trustee, on the demand of and at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when

(a)    either

(i)    all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

(ii)    all such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation have become due and payable, or

(1)    have become due and payable, or

(2)    will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within [    ], or

 

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(3)    are to be called for redemption within [    ] under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company, or

(4)    are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to Section 8.03, as applicable; and the Company, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, has deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable on or prior to the date of such deposit) or to the Stated Maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

(b)    the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and

(c)    the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each meeting the applicable requirements of Sections 10.04 and 10.05 and each stating that all conditions precedent herein relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with and the Trustee receives written demand from the Company to discharge.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.07, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to clause (a) of this Section, the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 8.01 8.02 and 8.05 shall survive.

Section 8.02    Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

(a)    Subject to the provisions of Section 8.05, all money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.01, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.03 or 8.04.

(b)    The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee and the Agents against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.03 or 8.04 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.

 

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(c)    The Trustee shall, in accordance with the terms of this Indenture, deliver or pay to the Company from time to time, upon Company Request and at the expense of the Company any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it pursuant to this Indenture as provided in Sections 8.03 or 8.04 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants, expressed in a written certification thereof and delivered to the Trustee together with such Company Request, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received. This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.

Section 8.03    Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series. Unless this Section 8.03 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.02(s), to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of such Series on the [    ] day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect (and the Trustee, at the expense of the company, shall, at Company Request, execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), except as to:

(a)    the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in subparagraph (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Stated Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;

(b)    the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 2.14, 8.02, 8.03 and 8.05; and

(c)    the rights, powers, trust and immunities of the Trustee hereunder; provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(d)    the Company shall have deposited or caused to be deposited irrevocably with the Paying Agent as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars (or such other money or currencies as shall then be legal tender in the United States) and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof, in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Paying Agent), not later than [    ] day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee and the Paying Agent, to pay and discharge each installment of principal (including mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments) of and interest, if any, on all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal are due;

 

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(e)    such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

(f)    no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the [    ] day after such date;

(g)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

(h)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the Holders of the Securities of such Series over any other creditors of the company or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company;

(i)    such deposit shall not result in the trust arising from such deposit constituting an investment company (as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended), or such trust shall be qualified under such Act or exempt from regulation thereunder; and

(j)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

Section 8.04    Covenant Defeasance. Unless this Section 8.04 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.02(s) to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, on and after the [    ] day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (a) hereof, the Company may omit to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.02, 4.03, 4.04, 4.05, 4.06, and 5.01 as well as any additional covenants contained in a supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02(s) (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default under Section 6.01) and the occurrence of any event described in clause (e) of Section 6.01 shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(a)    With reference to this Section 8.04, the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.02(c)) with the Paying Agent as trust funds in trust, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the

 

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Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars (or such other money or currencies as shall then be legal tender in the United States) and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof, in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Paying Agent), not later than [    ] day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants expressed in a written certification t